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EFFECT OF FRAMING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT

SCIENCE EDUCATION TOPICS AND MATERIALS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i
Certification ii
Acknowledgment iii
Dedication iv
Table of contents v
List of Tables vii
Abstract viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1
Statement of Problem 9
Purpose of the study 10
Significance of the study 11
Scope of the study 12
Research Questions 13
Hypotheses 14
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Metacognition 17
Spatial Learning Metacognitive Instructional Strategies 29
The Mole Concept 35
Achievement in Science 39
Retention 41
Ausbel’s Learning Theory and learning 44
Other Learning Theories 47
Related Empirical Studies 51
Issues Arising from Literature review 68
Summary of Literature Review 69
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Design of the study 71
Area of the study 72
Population of the study 72
Sample and sampling Procedure 72
Instrument for Data Collection 73
Validation of the Instrument 73
Experimental Procedure 74
Trial-Testing of the Instrument 76
Reliability of the Instrument 77
Method of Data Collection 78
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT
Testing of Research Question and Hypothesis 79
Summary of Result 93
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSION, CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY
Discussion 95
Effect of Framing on Students achievement 95
Interaction of method and sex on students achievement in mole concept Interaction of method and school location on Students 97
Achievement in mole concept 98
Effect of framing Instructional Strategy on Students
Achievement in mole Concept 98
Interaction Effect of Method and Sex on Students Retention of
Mole Concept 100
Interaction effect of Method and School Location on Students
Retention of Mole Concept 101
Summary of the study 101
Conclusion 103
Implications of the study 103
Limitation of the study 104
Recommendation 105
Suggestion for Further Research 106
References 107
Appendices 127

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