AN ANALYSIS OF HONEY CULTIVATION ,PRODUCTION, MARKETING AND USES IN ENUGU STATE
This study was initiated to Analyze Honey Cultivation ,Production, Marketing And Uses .The focus of the study was, to analyze the structure of production costs and determine profitability of the production, to analyze the determinants of honey supply in the study area, identify the major constraints and supply of the commodity to the market, to evaluate structure-conduct-performance of honey marketing and its uses. The data were generated by individual interview and group discussions using pre-tested semi structured questionnaires and checklists. This was supplemented by secondary data collected from different published and unpublished sources. Robust OLS regression econometric model was used to analyze the determinants of honey marketable supply. The results obtained from this analysis indicates that education level of the household head, price of honey in 1999 E.C. and the quantity of honey produced were found to be the most important positively significant variables influencing honey marketable supply of the District. The channel analysis of the commodity indicated a very short route. The main market participants for honey marketing of the District during the survey period were honey collectors, retailers and processors. Besides, a significant amount of honey produced is channeled directly to consumers from producers (434%). The honey marketing performance was also measured using marketing margins complemented with analysis of costs and gross profits generated by different marketing channel actors. Major problems of the production identified and prioritized by beekeepers in the study area were drought, pests and diseases of honey bee, lack of beekeeping equipments, death of colony, marketing problems, and shortage of bee forage and lack of adequate beekeeping skill. Based on the study results, interventions demanded to raise marketable supply of honey produced are recommended.
1.1. Background of the Study
Beekeeping (or apiculture), is the management of Bees in a hive in such a way as to observe its developmental stages and manipulations (Ojeleye, 1999). According to NHB (2004), beekeeping date back to around 2500 BC, when the first evidence appeared in the paintings of ancient Egyptian art. However, L.L Langstroth is often referred to as the father of modern day beekeeping, when he developed the langstroth wooden hive in 1862 (Carron, 2003). Until the 19th century, when refined sugar became available, honey was the world’s most popular sweetener and today, it is still being use as cake, tea, cereals, jam and jelly sweetener. The total annual global honey production is about 1.2 million tones, with Argentina, China and USA as major producers (Saner et al., 2004). While honey consumption is generally low in developing countries, industrialized countries like, Germany, Japan, USA and UK remain the major consumers of natural honey (Krell, 1996). Despite her potentials for honey production, due to excellent flora and fauna diversity, Ojeleye (2003), observed that, commercial beekeeping was almost non-existent in Nigeria, until recently. The country had relied on imported honey to meet the growing domestic demand for honey. Many farm families and rural dwellers run away from honey hunting because of the scare of honeybee sting. The local output of honey comes only from the few honey hunters and traditional bee farmers. These producers use traditional harvesting and processing techniques, which often lead to poor-quality honey. Although few studies have addressed different aspects of honey production in Nigeria (e.g. Aburime et al., 2006; Adekoya, et al., 2002; Farinde, et al., 2005; Ojeleye, 2003), we believe, there is still need for more research on the economics of honey production.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
Recognition of critical role of markets in economic development led to comprehensive market reforms across a number of developing countries. In spite of these reforms, symptoms of poorly functioning markets in much of Sub – Saharan Africa are evident in the segmentation of markets, low investment in the market infrastructure, the persistence of high margins and of the market thinness and the limited progression toward more complex arrangements (Eleni, 2001)
The major constraint to increasing the welfare of smallholders is their inability to access markets. Enhancing the ability of poor smallholder farmers to reach markets and actively engage in them is one of the most pressing development challenges. Remoteness results in reduced farm-gate prices, returns to labour and capital, and increased input and transaction costs. This, in turn, reduces incentives to participate in economic transactions and results in subsistence rather than market-oriented production systems. Sparsely populated rural areas, and high transport costs are physical barriers to accessing markets; lack of negotiating skills, lack of collective organizations and lack of market information are other impediments to market access (Jones, 1972).
An efficient, integrated, and responsive market mechanism, which is, marketed with good performance, is of crucial importance for optimum allocation of resources in agriculture and for stimulating farmers to increase output (Jones, 1972; FAO, 1999; Acharya and Agarwal, 1999). Without having convenient marketing conditions, the possible increment in output, rural incomes and foreign exchange resulting from the introduction of improved production technologies could not be effective. An improvement in marketing efficiency, thus, attracts the attention of many countries and viewed as an important national development strategy
Honey production in Enugu State is mainly with seasonality where surplus at harvest products is the main characteristics. The nature of the product on the one hand and the lack of organized market system on the other often resulted in low producers’ price. No studies have been carried out to identify what the marketing systems look like and no remedial measures were taken so far. This, therefore, demanded a holistic study of the system in the form of market chain analysis.
Market chain analysis is supposed to be the current approach working in studies of such type of production and marketing problems. Analysis of the system in terms of honey market structure, conduct and performance taking in to consideration the product and location specificity will, therefore, be used to identify the bottlenecks and come up with precise possible solution. Even though both honey and honey by-products are economical and socially important, no adequate study has been made in the study area to improve the sector.
1.3. Objectives of the study
The over all objective of this study was to analyze Of Honey Cultivation ,Production ,Marketing And Uses In Enugu State
. The specific objectives were to
(1) analyze the structure of production costs and determine profitability of production
(2) analyze the determinants of honey supply in the study area
(3) analyze the market structure, conduct and performance of honey market
(4) identify the major constraints, opportunities of production and supply of the commodity to the market
1.4. Scope of the study
The area coverage of this study was limited to Enugu state.
1.5. Significance of the Study
This study would generate useful information in order to formulate honey marketing development projects and guidelines for interventions that would improve the efficiency of honey marketing system. The potential users of this finding would be farmers (producers),
traders, government and non-government organizations, that have an interest to intervene in honey marketing system. Researchers who want further investigation on honey marketing would use the result from this study.
1.6. Organization of the study
The first chapter deals with the background, statement of the problem, objectives and significance of the study. The second chapter consists of the review of the literature. Methodology is outlined and described in the third chapter. The fourth chapter deals with the results and discussions. Conclusion and recommendations are presented in the fifth chapter
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