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AN EVALUATION OF PRICING STRATEGIES AND ITS IMPACT ON MARKETING DECISION

ACCOUNTING PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In a dynamic and ever growing environment such as the Nigeria economy firms and marking organization must adopt the right strategies in order to remain competitive in the market. A strategy refers to the skills and decision making process of the management of the company or firms or organization. It is also used to refer to the output of the process. This, a marking strategy can have a broad impact on the business in terms of instilling a marketing orientation among all those in the firms, the way of thinking or philosophy of the whole organization. However, marketing strategy can alternatively be seen as dealing with the development of competitive advantages directly associated with the marketing function, such as customer loyalty and distribution channel control.

Hence an organization like the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) have a marketing strategy focus on broad or philosophical approach while other prefer a narrower or functional view. In the case, the domain is sometimes even further restricted by focusing attention on the various elements of marketing mix rather than more general issues of customer and channel relationship (Wensley, 1995). In an organization like the Power Holding Company (PHCN) its marketing is said to be a reflection of the marketing activities that take place in an organization sometimes it is tagged the 4ps of marketing and it include product, price, place, and promotion. Pricing as a marketing mix variable is an important determinant of one firms’ success and mother’s failure pricing has to be timely and appropriate in order to achieve its desired objectives. Evidence abound for product and service which met staff competition as a result of pricing strategy adopted and have consequently failed. Similarly, pricing is considered by many to be key activity within the free enterprise system and organization system. A products’ price influences the price paid for the factors of production-land, labour, capital and entrepreneurship. Price thus is a basic regulator of the economic system because in influences the allocation of these factors of production. High wages attract capital. As an allocation of scarce resources, price determines what will be produced (supply) and who will get the goods and services that are produced (demand). A product’s price is a major determinant of the market demand for the item.

Price affects a firms’ competitive position and its market share. As a result price has a considerable bearing on a company and organization (PHCN) revenue and net profit. It is only through price that money comes into a well established organization. Customers rely heavily on price as an indicator of a decision with incomplete information. Some customers perception of product quality vary directly with price. Thus, the higher the price, the better the quality is perceived to be customers take this judgment particularly when no other dues as to product quality are available customers quality perception can of course also be influenced by such thing as sheer reputation. In practice many difficulties associated with pricing occur because most people do not know the meaning of the word price, even through the concept is quite easy to define in familiar terms. The terms price can be used to describe the monetary value of an item. Price is value expressed in terms of naira and kobo or another monetary medium of exchange. Kotler (1999) observed that multinational face several pricing problem when selling goods abroad. They must deal with price escalation transfer prices, dumping charges reconnecting of lights. To achieve this set objectives organization such as the Power Holding of Nigeria (PHCN) must balance all these problems.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Price is the marketing-mix element that produces revenue, the other produces costs. Price is also one of the most flexible element. It can be changed quickly, unlike product features and channel commitment. At the same, price competition is one of the most critical problems facing companies yet many companies and organization do not handle pricing well common mistakes usually made during pricing are; pricing is too cost oriented, price in the company is not revised often enough to capitalize on market changes; the company sets its price independent of other marketing mix rather than as an intrinsic element of market-positioning strategy. In practice the Power Holding Company of Nigeria inclusive pricing decision are often made arbitrarily or merely on basis of cost related criteria with limited or no pricing research to guide them. In the light of the above, a more effective goal- oriented approach to pricing is needed but this approach pricing strategy is lacking hence the problem of price variations.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The issue of pricing date back to the ancient period of trade by barter. The distinction in strategy is not an issue of good or bad, but that of appropriate and inappropriate strategy (Ang So, 1970). This means that all strategies are good, but when used in a particular situation, a particular strategy becomes inappropriate if it does not yield the desired goal. The principal aim of this study is to evaluate existing pricing strategy in the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) in terms of its effectiveness and impact on their marketing decision. 1. To provide the overview of the steps involved in eective price decision. 2. To specify which pricing strategies may enable the PHCN attain its set objectives. 3. To identify alternatives most appropriate for the PHCN pricing environment. 4. To examine a framework for effective goal-oriented pricing for the PHCN. 5. To find out the major aspects and factors influencing the price decision of PHCN. 6. To implement the selected strategies a price structure and price level have to be determined.

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