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ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC POTENTIAL OF VITEX DONIANAETHANOLEXTRACTS ON POLOXAMER 407 INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC AND NORMAL RATS

Bio Chemistry Project Topics & Materials Uncategorized

ABSTRACT

Anti-hyperlipidemic potential of extracts (aqueous, 70% methanol, 70% ethanol and 70%, acetone) of Vitexdoniana leaves, stem bark and root bark on poloxamer 407 induced hyperlipidemic and normal rats was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and tannins in the leaves, stem bark and root bark. The average total polyphenol contents of the leaves ethanol (36.11±3.13mg/g gallic acid) and methanol (35.75±1.72mg/g gallic acid) extracts were significantly (p<0.05) higher when compared with that of acetone and aqueous extracts. The IC50of the leaves ethanol extract (0.227mg/ml) was lowerthan that ofstem bark ethanol extract (0.236mg/ml) and root ethanol extract (0.561mg/ml). Screening the extracts for the most potent anti-hyperlipidemicactivityreveals that ethanolic extracts of root bark and leaveshas the highest percentage reduction of total cholesterol (51.98%) and triacylglycerol (50.75%) respectively. The most abundant phytochemical in the most potent extract is flavonoid (4.605±0.077%) in the leaves and the least is tanins (0.035±0.008%) in the root bark extract. The LD50 of both leaves and stem bark was greater than 5000mg/kg body weight and that of root bark was 948.68 mg/kg body weight. Hyperlipidemic control rats significantly (p<0.05) increased total Cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TAG), Low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) andsignificantly (p<0.05) decreased High density lipoprotein (HDL-c) compared to other groups.Atherogenic risk factor of all induced treated rats shows a significant (p<0.05) lower levels of LDL-c/HDL-c, Log (TAG/HDL-c) and significant (p<0.05) higher level of HDL-c /TC ratio. There was no significant (p>0.05) change between normal control rats and normal treated rats in lipid profile parameters and atherogenic indices. The level of liver marker enzymes (ALT, ALP, AST) and liver function parameter (TB, IB) were significantly (p<0.05)higher, and lower (TB, DB) in hyperlipidemic control groups compared to all other groups. The invivo antioxidant activity shows a significantly (p<0.05) higher level of TBARS and a significant (p<0.05) lower level of SOD and CAT in hyperlipidemic groups when compared to all treated groups. In both liver and kidney, the leaves and stem bark extract significantly (p<0.05) lowers levels of TBARS of normal control rats compared to normal treated and all induced treated groups. All the extractsactivity in the liver and leaves extract in the kidney of normal rats show a significant higher level of CAT compared with other treated groups. The study shows that vitexdonianapossesses anti-hyperlipidemic potential.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       Statement of Research Problem

1.2       Justification

1.3       Aims of the Study

1.3.1    Specific objectives

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Vitex Doniana

2.1.1    Habitat/Distribution

2.1.2    Botanical classification

2.1.3    Chemical constituent

2.1.4    Uses

2.2       Polyphenols

2.2.1    Classes

2.2.2    Extraction

2.2.3    Pharmacological action/effect

2.3       Hyperlipidemia

2.3.1    Definition

2.3.2    Classes

2.3.3    Etiology

2.3.4    Diagnosis

2.3.5    Treatment

2.3.6    Experimental model of hyperlipidemia

2.3.7    Hyperlipidemia and liver

2.3.8    Hyperlipidemia and kidney

2.3.9    Hyperlipidemia and hematological parameters

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1       Materials

3.1.1    Plant materials

3.1.2    Chemicals/Reagents

3.1.3    Equipment

3.1.4    Experimental animals

3.2       Methods

3.2.1    Extraction

3.2.2    Phytochemical screening of the plant

3.2.3    In vitro screening of the extracts

3.2.4    In vivo biological activity of extracts

3.2.5 Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the extract

3.2.6Acute toxicity study

3.2.7    Induction of hyperlipidemia

3.2.8    Animal grouping

3.2.9Collection and preparation of samples

3.2.10  Determination of serum lipid profile

3.2.11  Determination of biochemical parameters

3.2.12  Determination of in vivo antioxidant activity

3.2.13 Statistical analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       RESULTS

4.1 Phytochemical Screening of VitexDoniana

4.2In Vitro Screening of the Extracts

4.3 In Vivo Biological Activity of Extracts

4.4Quantitative Phytochemical of EthanolicExtract

4.5Lethal Dosage (LD50) of the Ethanolic Extract

4.6Lipid Profile           and Atherogenic Predictor Indices

4.7Liver Marker Enzymes and Function Parameters

4.8Kidney Function Parameters and Packed Cell Volume

4.9Body Weight

4.10In Vivo Antioxidant Activity

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       DISCUSSION

CHAPTER SIX

6.0       SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

6.1       Summary

6.2       Conclusion

6.3       Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

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