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List of tables and figures
Table of Content
2.0. The heart
2.0.1. Cardiovascular disorder
2.0.2 Diseases Associated with Cardiovascular
2.0.3 Some of the risk factor for cardiovascular disorder
2.1. Causes of cardiovascular disorder
2.1.1 Symptoms of cardiovascular disorder
2.2 Pharmacological treatment of cardiovascular disorder
2.3 Medicinal plant
2.4 Description of Desmodium Velutinum
2.4.1 Taxonomy of Desmodium Velutium
2.4.2 Uses of Desmodium Velutium
2.5 Lipoprotein Metabolism in the heart
2.5.1 Classifications of lipoprotein
2.5.2 Danger of high cholesterol level
2.6 Phytochemicals analysis
2.7 Heart Marker
2.7.1 Types of cardiac Marker
3.0Material and Methods
3.1Identification and extraction of plant material
3.2Hot continuous percolation method
3.4 Experimental Animal model
3.5Collection of blood sample
3.6Enzyme profile Analysis
4.3Heart Marker Enzymes of Rats Fed With Various Sample
This study evaluates the cardio protactive effect of N-hexane extract of Desmodium Velutinum stem on albino wister rat. Rats used in this study were grouped into four and each group was fed differentely. Rats in group one, three, and four wre fed with the aid of a syringe without needle with 6ml of the lipoprotein food mixture containing 3.6g of the cow’s brain twice a day for seven days. Rats on group two was fed with only grower’s mash and water for seven days; rats in group three was later administered orally 2ml of dissolved vasoprin drug once in a day for 3 days. Rats in group four were also administered orally 0.5ml of the liquid drug extract of Desmodium Velutinum stem once a day for 3 days. During these three (3) days, the rats were given grower’s mash and water. After the feeding period, the rate fed with the cow’s brain showed a significant increases in the activities of marker enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CKMB), Aspartatatranseaminase (AST), Alaninetransminase (ALT), and lactatedehydrogenase. This study shows that N-hexane extract of Desmodium Velutinum stem posses cardio protective effect on albino wister rats than the known drug (vasoprin) if only one can increase the dosage of the extract for a period of time.
The heart is a hollow muscular, cone-shaped organ, lying between the
lungs in a block of tissue called the mediastinum (Khader, 2004). The heart begins beating some few weeks following conception and beats throughout life (Khader, 2004). It is also the strongest muscle in the human body and functions to maintain a constant circulation of blood throughout the body, it also acts as a pump and its action is composed of a series of events known as the cardiac cycle. The heart is composes of three layers of tissue which are; the pericardium, the myocardium and the Endocardium. The heart acts as a pump which drives blood into and through the arteries, but the right and the left side of the heart functions separately from one another some of the diseases associated with the cardiovascular system includes coronary heart diseases (CHD) which is the most common of heart diseases and it occurs when the arteries supplying blood to the heart narrow or harden from the build-up of plaque (Gina, 1996.),Ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease( CeVD),peripheral vascular disease, Heart Failure etc and some of the pharmacological treatment includes Angiotesin commonly prescribes includes Benazepril, Captopril, Moexipril, Beta Blockers which includes, Acebutolol, Betaxolol,etc.
The heart marker enzymes includes creatine kinasse(CK-MB)which is the enzyme used as the definitive serum marker for the diagnosis or exclusion of acute myocardial infarction (Andreas,2009).
Troponin 1 Rapid test which is a lateral flow chromatographic immunoassay for the qualitative detection of cardiac Troponin 1(CTn1)and its complex in human serum or plasma at the level equal or higher than 1ng/ml. Myoglobin which is also designed for qualitative determination of myoglobin in human whole blood serum or plasma as an aid in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) and myoglobin is also a low molecular weight cytoplasm protein which is released into the blood stream when muscle cells are damaged and this protein is released into the blood stream more rapidly than any other myocardial marker and elevated levels can be detected as early as one (1) hour after the onset of AMI(Penttila,2002). Demodium velutinum has been suggested to have some therapeutic effect in the treatment of cardiovascular disorder and in the reducing of high cholesterol content in the body.
Demodium Velutinum is one of the few shrubs species that has been identified as a well adapted to acid tropical soil and a good nutritive value(Schultze-Kraft, 2002).Every culture has relied on the variety of natural medicines found in healing plants for the therapeutic properties
(Armstrong,2004).Researchers find that food and their individual constituents perform similar fashion to modern drugs and sometimes better without the dreaded side effect. The leaves and young stems are rich in crude protein and mineral elements and can provide higher levels of some nutrient (Bakker, 1994). Natural plants have been valuable sources of mineral agent with proven potential of treating infectious diseases and with lesser side effects compared to the synthetic drug agents(Guyton, 2002).Hence potentially useful drugs can often be recognized from their relative importance and uses in folk medicine. Extract of Desmodium velutinum stem are used traditionally in some diseases condition particularly headache and may be a source of a pharmacological active agent useful in the treatment of aches and pain(Anowi,2012). This work aimed at investigating any hypocholesterolemic activity in the N-hexane extract of Desmodium Velutinum stem.
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