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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PATIENTS’ AND NURSES’ PERCEPTIONS OF NURSE CARING BEHAVIOURS IN TWO TERTIARY HOSPITALS IN JOS

NURSING SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page . . . . . . . . . i
Approval . . . . . . . . . ii
Certification . . . . . . . . . iii
Dedication . . . . . . . . . iv
Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . v
Table of Contents . . . . . . . . vi
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . viii
List of Tables . . . . . . . . . ix
Abstract . . . . . . . . . xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study . . . . . . . 1
Statement of Problem . . . . . . . . 3
Purpose of the Study . . . . . . . . 5
Research Questions . . . . . . . 6
Research Hypothesis . . . . . – . . 6
Significance of the Study . . . . . . . 6
Scope of the Study . . . . . . . . 7
Operational Definitions . . . . . . . 8

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual Review . . . . . . . . 10
Review of Theories Underlying the Study . . . . . 31
Empirical Review . . . . . . . . 44
Summary of Reviewed Literature . . . . . . 61

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Research Design . . . . . . . 62
Area of Study . . . . . . . . 62
Population of the Study . . . . . . 65
Sample . . . . . . . . 65
Sampling Procedure . . . . . . . 67
Instrument for Data Collection . . . . . 72
Validity of Instrument . . . . . . . 75
Reliability of Instrument . . . . . . 76
Ethical Consideration . . . . . . . 77
Procedure for Data Collection . . . . . 78
Method of Data Analysis . . . . . . 81

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
CHAPTER FIVE:DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Implications of Findings . . . . . . 129
Peculiarity and Limitations of the Study . . . . 129
Summary . . . . . . . . 129
Conclusion . . . . . . . . 131
Suggestion for Further Research . . . . . 132
Recommendation . . . . . . . 132
References . . . . . . . . 134
Appendices . . . . . . . . 140

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Title Page
1: The interrelationship of five perspectives of caring . . . 14
2: Conceptual model for the study based on Watson’s 10
carative factors and the five perspectives of care . . . 60

LIST OF TABLES
Table Title Page
1: Demographic characteristics of respondents . . . . 83
2: Adjusted mean scores and standard deviations of patients’
perceptions of nurse caring behaviours . . . . 85

3: Patients’ mean scores, standard deviations and one sample item t-test
values for the 37 items of the CBAQ . . . . . 153
4: The 10 highest scored nurse caring behaviour statements by patients
with their ranking . . . . . . . 87
5: The 10 lowest scored nurse caring behaviour statements by patients
with their ranking . . . . . . . 88
6: Adjusted mean scores and standard deviations for nurses’ perceptions
of nurse caring behaviour . . . . . . 90
7: Nurses Mean Scores, Standard Deviations and t-values for the 37
Items of the CBAQ . . . . . . . 156
8: The 10 highest scored nurse caring behaviour statements by nurses
with their ranking . . . . . . . 92

9: The 10 lowest scored nurse caring behaviour statements by nurses
with their ranking . . . . . . . 93

10: Mean values and standard Deviation of patients and Nurses on
CBAQ subscales in rank order and their comparison . . . 95
11: Patients’ ranking of the I0 most important Nurse caring behaviour
and their comparison to Nurses (n=167) . . . . 97
12: Nurses Rankings of the 10 most important caring behaviours
and their comparisons to patients (n = 165) . . . . 98
13: Patients rankings of the 10 least important caring behaviors and their
comparison to nurses (n-167) . . . . . . 99
14: Nurses rankings of the 10 least important caring behaviour and their
comparison to patients (n = 165) . . . . . 100

15: Mean scores and standard deviation of patients and nurses on the CBAQ caring behaviour items . 102

16: Summary of one-way analysis of variance on patients and nurses
perceptions of CBAQ caring behavior as indicators of care . 102

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to comparatively assess patients’ and nurses’ perceptions of nurse caring behaviours in Jos University Teaching hospital (JUTH) and Plateau State Specialist Hospital (PSSH) Jos. A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was employed to study 332 patients and nurses. No sampling was done as all the subjects who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Data were collected using a modified Caring Behavior Assessment questionnaire (CBA-Q) (37 items), a 5-point likert-type scale and arranged in 7-subscales. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result indicated that all the caring behaviours statements except item 17 (“Visiting patient if patient moves to another hospital units” with item mean of 2.63; SD = 1.33 and t-value of 1.24 which is below the mean criterion value of 2.50) were accepted as indicators of care by patients. The findings that “using soft gentle voice with patients”, “being kind and considerate to patients”, “answering patients’ questions clearly”, and “giving patients’ treatments and medications on time” were the four highest (most important) scored items by patients. The findings that “visiting patient if patient moves to another hospital unit” “preparing patient for death when it is inevitable”, “Praying with and or for patient” and “checks his or her perception of the patient with the patient before initiating any action” were the four lowest (least important) scored items by patients. The result is indicative that all the caring behaviour statements except item 17 (“visiting patient if patient moves to another hospital unit”, with item mean of 2.62, SD = 0.90, and t-observed value of 1.69 which is below the mean criterion of 2.50) were accepted as indicators of care by nurses. The findings that “giving patients treatments and medications on time”, “treating patients information confidentially”, “using soft gentle voice with patient” and “showing patient love”, were the four highest (most important) scored items by nurses. The findings that “visiting patient if patient moves to another hospital unit, “is calm” and “preparing patient for death when it is inevitable” were the three lowest (least important) scored items by nurses. Comparison of mean scores and standard deviation of patients and nurses on CBAQ subscale showed that patients and nurses perceived humanism/faith hope sensitivity”, “helping/trusting” and “human needs assistant as the most important and “existential phenomenological/spiritual forces” as the least important subscale. The mean scores showed that nurses gave higher mean values than did patients to all the seven subscales. A comparison of the top 10 CBAQ items between patients’ and nurses’ perception revealed similarities as well as differences. Patients and nurses agreed on 6 out of the 10 most important items and do not agree on the remaining 4 top 10 caring behaviour statements. The result also indicated that nurses more than patients value the subscale “humanism faith hope sensitivity” while patients valued the subscale; “human needs assistant” more than nurses. In total, nurses scored higher in 31(83.7%) items than patients who scored higher than nurses in only 5 (13.5%) items. A comparison of the 10 least important CBAQ items showed that patients and nurses agree on 5 out of 10 of the 10 least important items. Items 17 and 23 on the CBAQ (visiting patients when patient moves to another hospital unit”, and “check his or her perception of the patient with the patient before initiating any action” were ranked same by both patients and nurses. There is a significant difference in the perceptions of CBAQ statements as indicators of care between patients and nurses (F=7.456, P < 0.05) P = 007. It was recommended that the result of the study be communicated to nursing staff of the two hospitals. In order to help nurses meet caring expectations of clients and enhance patients’ positive health outcomes. The result from this study therefore provide improvement implications for the care of patients, like concrete information on what behaviours the patient would like to experience.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Caring is when a loving and kind gesture is demonstrated by a person as he or she functions to promote wellness, well being, maintain health, alleviate sufferings, rehabilitate the disabled individuals, family, group, community, or population. “Nurse caring” is the process by which the nurse becomes responsive to another person as a unique individual, perceives the other’s feelings, and sets that person apart from the ordinary” (Watson 1998 in Batsdusdottir and Jonsdettir, 2002). Nurse caring behaviour on the other hand, refers to “those things that a nurse says or does that communicate caring to the patients (Batsdusdottir and Jorsdottir, 2002). Caring is the service the nurse renders while caring behaviours are those attitude, competencies and skills the nurse exhibits while rendering the services (Ehiemere, 2011).

 

 

 

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