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COPING STRATEGIES OF PARENTS WITH PHYSICALLY AND MENTALLY CHALLENGED CHILDREN IN ENUGU URBAN SOUTHEAST NIGERIA

NURSING SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title                 –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Approval         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Certification                –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Dedication      –         –          –            –         –          –              –            –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgement      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of content          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

List of Appendices     –          –          –            –          –           –          –            –           –           viii

List of tables   —          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –          ix

List of figures             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ix

List of Boxes –         –             –           –           –          –           –          –           –            –           ix

Abstract         –         –              –          –           –          –           –          –           –            –           x

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

  • Background to the study        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1
  • Statement of problem             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4
  • Purpose of the study   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5
  • Specific objectives of the study          –           –           –           –           –           –           5
  • Research questions      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           6
  • Significance of the study        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           6
  • Scope of the study      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7
  • Operational definition of terms          –           –           –           –           –           –           7

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review     

  • Conceptual review      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           10
  •  Stress  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           10
  • Family stress   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           11
  • Coping strategies        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           12
  • Coping resources         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           14
  • Ineffective/ maladaptive coping         —        –           –           –           –           –           20
  • Coping and socio demographic variables       –           –           –           –           –           21
  • Physically challenged  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23
  • Mentally challenged    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           24
  • Parents of physically and mentally challenged children         —        –           –           26
  • Theoretical framework            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           27
  • Empirical studies on coping strategies            –           –           –           –           –           32
  • Summary of literature review –           –           –           –           –           –           –           38

CHAPTER THREE

Research Methods    

  • Research design          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           40
  • Area of study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           40
  • Population of study    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41
  • Sample            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42
  • Sampling  Procedure   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42
  • Instrument for data collection            –           –           –           –           –           –           43
  • Validity of the instrument      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           45
  • Reliability of the instrument   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           45
  • Ethical clearance         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           45
  • Procedure for data Collections           –           –           –           –           –           –           46
  • Data Analysis  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation of findings          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           49
  • Summary of findings –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           61

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Discussion –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           62
  • Summary of the study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           67
  • Implication of the study to nursing practice –           –           –           –           –           68
  • Suggestion for future research –           –           –           –           –           –           –           70
  • Limitation of the study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           70
  • Conclusion –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           71
  • Recommendations –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           71

References      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           73

Appendices     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           78

LIST OF APPENDICES

  • Appendix i Calculation of sample                                        –            78
  • Appendix ii Distribution of sample size across the schools           –           –           79
  • Appendix iii       Questionnaire            –           –           –           –           –           –           80
  • Appendix iv   Family strategy Interview guide       –           –           –           –           83
  • Appendix v                 SPSS13 Results          –           –           –           –           –           –           85
  • Appendix vi             Application for ethical approval         –           –           –           –           93
  • Appendix vii Ethical certificate        –           –           –           –           –           –           94
  • Appendix viii Letter of identification from the Head of Nursing Dept.       –           95
  • Appendix ix Permission letter from Therapeutic Day Care Centre             –           96
  • Appendix x       Permission letter from Government School for the Deaf and

Dumb –           –           –           –           –           –                       –           97

  • Appendix xii     Informed consent form           –           –           –           –           –           98
  • Appendix xi Questionnaire ( Igbo Version )   –   –   –       –           –           –           –           100

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:           Showing the demographic variables of respondents  –                       –           50

Table 2:           Identified coping strategies and their utilization by both  groups of parent         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           51

Table 3:           Showing mean usage of coping strategies by respondents     –           –           51

Table 4:           One-way MANOVA summary on parents’ use of coping strategies –           52

Table 5:           Showing three way MANOVA on age, income

and Education differences in the use of the four coping strategies               –           54

Table 6:           Showing means and standard Deviation of age and education Interaction on Denial –           –           –           –           –                       –           55

Table 7:           Showing resources/strength utilized by the respondents that have been helping them to care for their children                       –           57

Table 8:           Showing additional strategies that have been of help

to the respondents       –           –           –           –           –                       –           58

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 1:          Theoretical frame work (Calister Roy’s Adaptation Theory –           –           30

Figure 2:          Theoretical frame work (ABCX model)         –           –           –           –           32

Figure 3:     Interaction between age and education    –           –                       –           56

 

                                                       LIST OF BOXES

Box     1:         Sub-themes for closeness to God       –           –           –                     –             59

Box     2:         Sub-themes for personal strength        –           –           –                     –             59

Box     3:          Sub-themes for support network        –           –           –                     –             59

Box     4:         Sub-themes for financial empowerment         –           –                     –             59

Box     5:         Sub-themes for information and communication       –                     –             59

 

ABSTRACT

The Purpose of this study was to examine the coping strategies utilized by parents who have physically or mentally challenged children in Enugu Urban. The study surveyed 154 consenting parents who have children enrolled in Therapeutic Day Care Center Enugu and Government School for the Deaf and Dumb Ogbete Coal Camp, Enugu using descriptive survey research design. Purposive sampling was used for this study to select 2 schools out of the 3 special schools in Enugu Urban, while convenience sampling was then used to reach the respondents. Parents coping strategy questionnaire (PCSQ) was used to identify the coping strategies of parents. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was also organized using Family Coping Strategy Interview Guide (FCSIG) in order to identify other strategies not captured through the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics (Means and Standard Deviation) were computed for the demographic variables and the various coping subscales. Statistical analysis was done using MANOVA with alpha set at 0.05. The results showed that parents with physically and mentally challenged children used a combination of coping strategies. The data analysis revealed that the most frequently used coping strategies were; Spiritual Coping strategy (M = 4.67), Personal/Family resources coping strategy (M = 3.85) and External Social Support (M = 3.49). The least coping strategy used by parents was Denial coping strategy (M = 2.98). Parent’s of physically challenged children significantly used external social support more (F(1,152) = 10.59, p < .01) than parents of mentally challenged children. Significant interaction effect was found between age and education in the use of denial coping strategies (F( 1, 142 = 4.96, p < 0.5). These results suggest that parents used a wide range of coping strategies which appeared more helpful to them than any one single strategy. Also, the fact that parents of physically challenged children appear to significantly use external social support more than parents of mentally challenged children suggest  that parents of the physically challenged are more connected to others and more ready to disclose their problem to people. It is therefore recommended that professionals in this special area should organize and establish association of parents of children who are physically or mentally challenged. This will create an avenue for interaction with one another, exchange of ideas, and expression of feeling which will lead to better coping.

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background to the Study                            

The contemporary world is filled with a never ending array of challenges and numerous factors are responsible for that, (Bennibor 2007). One of such challenges is the burden of caring for a physically or mentally challenged child. The birth of a normal child can have a significant effect on the family dynamics. For this reason, parents and other children in the family must undergo a variety of changes to adapt to the pressure of a new member (Hussain and Juyal 2007). More profoundly, the birth of a physically or mentally challenged child to a family constitutes a serious burden that poses obvious challenges to parents. These challenges could include the time required for extra care, increased financial demand, stigmatization, psychological and social burden among others.

 

Dykens (2000) described physical challenge or disability as lack of ability relative to a personal or group standard or norm which may involve physical impairment such as sensory impairment limiting sensory function, or motor impairment limiting mobility. Such physical disabilities include; deafness and dumbness, blindness, being crippled, or the malfunctioning of some parts of the body which limits the effectiveness with which a child can cope with the academic, social and emotional expectations of the school and community. Mental challenge on the other hand according to Hodapp and Dykens (2001) is a form of mental retardation marked by I Q (intelligent quotient) score of less than 75 and limited ability to carry out daily living skills. It includes children with Down’s syndrome, cerebral palsy, autism among others. A person is mentally challenged if he is unable to dress, feed, or otherwise care for himself or herself, to hold a job or carry out most of other tasks needed to get through an ordinary day.

 

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