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DEVELOPMENT OF MOTIVATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR ENHANCING THE ENTRY OF ALMAJIRIS INTO COTTON PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS IN NORTHWEST, NIGERIA

Vocational Technical Education Project Topics & Materials

DEVELOPMENT OF MOTIVATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR ENHANCING THE ENTRY OF ALMAJIRIS INTO COTTON PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS IN NORTHWEST, NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Approval Page                                                                                                                        ii

Certification                                                                                                                            iii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  v

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   vi

List of Tables                                                                                                                          ix

List of Figures                                                                                                                         x

Abstract                                                                                                                                  xi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                                1

Background of the Study                                                                                              1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                              9

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                     11

Significance of the Study                                                                                              12

Research Questions                                                                                                       13

Hypotheses                                                                                                                    14

Scope of the Study                                                                                                        15

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                      16

Conceptual Framework                                                                                                       17

Task Analysis Approach                                                                                                17

Competency Based Approach                                                                                       19

Modular Approach                                                                                                        21

Research and Development (R & D)                                                                            23

Occupational Area Approach                                                                                        25

Function of Industry Analysis                                                                                      27

Concept of Almajiris                                                                                                     28

Cotton Occupation                                                                                                        29

Programme Development                                                                                              30

Theoretical Framework of the Study                                                                                  32

Motivation Theory                                                                                                         32

Occupational Theory                                                                                                     38

Training Theory                                                                                                             40

Cotton Production                                                                                                         44

Competencies in Cotton Production                                                                             44

Review of Related Empirical Studies                                                                                  123

Summary of the Reviewed Literature                                                                                 136

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                                         138

Design of the Study                                                                                                      138

Area of the Study                                                                                                          139

Population of the Study                                                                                                139

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                                  140

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                     140

Validation of the Instrument                                                                                         141

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                         141

Method of Data Collection                                                                                           142

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                              142

 

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA                          145

Research Question One                                                                                                 145

Research Question Two                                                                                                            146

Research Question Three                                                                                               148

Research Question Four                                                                                                149

Research Question Five                                                                                                 150

Research Question Six                                                                                                  151

Testing of Hypotheses                                                                                                   152

Findings of the Study                                                                                                   160

Discussion of Findings                                                                                                  184

Discussion of Findings from Hypotheses Tested                                                          186

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION             189

Re-statement of the Problem                                                                                         189

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                     190

Summary of the Procedure Used                                                                                  190

Major Findings of the Study                                                                                         191

Conclusion                                                                                                                     193

Educational Implications of the Study                                                                         194

Limitation of the Study                                                                                                 195

Recommendations for Implementation                                                                         196

Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                    197

REFERENCES                                                                                                                    198

APPENDICES                                                                                                                      213

APPENDIX A: Evidence of Visits to Cotton Farms for Functions of Industry        213

APPENDIX B: Population of Agricultural Extension Agents                                                216

APPENDIX C: Population of Cotton Processors and Marketers                               217

APPENDIX D: Population of Teachers of Agricultural Science                                218

APPENDIX E: Request for Validation of Research Instrument                                219

APPENDIX F: Instrument for Data Collection                                                          220

APPENDIX G: Results of Reliability Test                                                                 247

APPENDIX H: Format for Packaging the Programmes                                              257

APPENDIX I: PROGRAMME I                                                                                258

APPENDIX J: PROGRAMME 2                                                                               273

APPENDIX K: PROGRAMME 3                                                                              282

APPENDIX L: Evidence of Validation of the Packaged Programmes                      289

APPENDIX M: Item-by-Item Analysis for Research Question One                          294

APPENDIX N: Item-by-Item Analysis for Research Question Two                          304

APPENDIX O: Item-by-Item Analysis for Research Question Three                                    307

APPENDIX P: Item-by-Item Analysis for Research Question Four                          309

APPENDIX Q: Item-by-Item Analysis for Research Question Five                          311

APPENDIX R: Item-by-Item Analysis for Research Question Six                            312

APPENDIX S: Item-by-Item Analysis for Hypothesis One                                       314

APPENDIX T: Item-by-Item Analysis for Hypothesis Two                                      326

APPENDIX U: Item-by-Item Analysis for Hypothesis Three                                                330

APPENDIX V: Item-by-Item Analysis for Hypothesis Four                                      332

APPENDIX W: Item-by-Item Analysis for Hypothesis Five                                     335

APPENDIX X: Result of Data Analysed                                                                   336

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Mean Rating of the Responses of Agricultural Extension Agents

and Teachers of Agricultural Science on the competencies required

by almajiris for entry into occupation in growing of cotton                                    145

 

Table 2:Mean Rating of the Responses of Cotton Processors and Cotton

Marketers on Competencies Required by almjiris for Entering into

Occupation in Processing of Cotton                                                                          147

 

Table 3: Mean Rating of the Responses of Cotton Processors and Cotton

Marketers on Competencies Required by almajiris for Entry into

Occupation in Marketing of Cotton                                                                          148

 

Table 4: Mean Rating of the Responses of Agricultural Extension Agent

and Teachers of Agricultural Science on Motivational Strategies

Required for Enhancing the Entry and Sustainability of almajiris

into Occupations in Cotton Production                                                                      149

 

Table 5: Mean Rating of the Responses of Agricultural Extension Agents

and Teachers of Agricultural Science on the Motivational Strategies

Required for Enhancing the Performance of Trainers in Training

the almajiri for Occupations in Cotton Production                                                    150

 

Table 6: Mean Rating of the Responses of Agricultural Extension Agents

and Teachers of Agricultural Science on Training Procedure that

could be Utilized for Empowering the almajiris with Skills in Cotton

Production Occupations at the Skills Acquisition Centres                                         151

 

Table 7: t-Test Analysis of Mean Rating of the Responses of Agricultural

Extension Agent and Teachers of Agricultural Science on Competence

Required by almajiris for Entry into Occupation in Growing of Cotton                   153

 

Table 8: t-Test Analysis of Mean Ratings of the Responses of Cotton

Processors and Cotton Marketers on Competences Required by

            almajiris for Entry into Occupation in Processing of Cotton                                     154

 

Table 9: t- Test Analysis of Mean Rating of the Responses of Cotton Processors

and Cotton Marketers on Competencies Required by almajiri for Entry

into Occupation in Marketing of Cotton                                                                    156

 

Table 10: t-Test Analysis of Mean Rating of the Responses of Agricultural

Extension Agent and Teachers of Agricultural Science on Motivational

Strategies Required for Enhancing the Entry and Sustainability

of almajiri in Occupations in Cotton Production                                                    1157

Table 11: t-Test Analysis of Mean Rating of the Responses of Agricultural

Extension Agent and Teachers of Agricultural Science on Motivational

Strategies Required for Enhancing the Performance of Trainers in

Training the almajiris for Occupations in Cotton Production                                    159

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Steps of System Model of Educational Research & Development (R & D)         25

Figure 2: Occupational Clusters in Cotton Production                                                         26

Figure 3: Schema on Cotton Production and Youth (almajiris) Motivation                         31

Figure 4: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory                                                                   33

Abstract

This study focused on the development of motivational training programme for enhancing the entry of almajiris into cotton production occupations in Northwest, Nigeria. Six research questions guided the study and five hypotheses were formulated and tested at the probability of 0.05 level of significance. Research and Development (R & D) design was used for the study. The population for the study was 2,717 comprising 1,528 Agricultural Extension Agents; 1,138 Teachers of Agricultural Science; 24 Cotton Processors and 27 Marketers. The sample for the study was 580 consisting 301 Agricultural Extension Agents, 228 Teachers of Agricultural Science and 51 Cotton Processors and Marketers. The population of Agricultural Extension Agents and Teachers of Agricultural Science were sampled using 20% proportionate stratified random sampling technique while the entire population of Cotton Processors and Marketers were adopted because of their small size. The questionnaire which is divided into five sections (growing, processing, and marketing of cotton, motivational strategies and training procedures) were developed from the review of the literature and function of industry and used for data collection from the respondents and were face-validated by five experts. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instruments. Reliability coefficients of 0.79, 0.71, 0.73, 0.82 and 0.89 were obtained for the five sections of questionnaire respectively. Agricultural Extension Agents and Teachers of Agricultural Science responded to 529 copies of the questionnaire on growing of cotton, motivational strategies and training procedure, while Cotton Processors and Marketers responded to 51 copies of the questionnaire on processing and marketing of cotton. The questionnaires were administered to the respondents by the researcher with the help of seven research assistants. A total of 571 copies were retrieved out of the 580 copies administered with return rate of 98.4%. The data collected were analyzed using weighted mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at the probability level of 0.05 and at relevant degrees of freedom. It was found out that the almajiris required 182 competencies in growing cotton, 57 competencies in processing cotton and 27 competencies in marketing of cotton for entry into any of the occupation in cotton production enterprises. It was also found out that 34 motivational strategies were required for motivating the almajiris for entry into training in cotton production occupations. The trainers also required 10 motivational strategies for enhancing their performance in training the almajiris in cotton production enterprises. The study further revealed that 28 competencies were identified as training procedure to be utilized by trainers for empowering the almajiris with skills at the skill acquisition centres. The findings from the test of hypotheses revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of Agricultural Extension Agents and Teachers of Agricultural Science on 182 competencies on growing of cotton, 44 motivational strategies required for motivating the almajiris as well as trainers in cotton production occupations. It was also found out that there was no significant difference in the mean rating of the responses of Cotton Processors and Marketers on 52 out of 57 competency items required by almajiris for entry into cotton processing enterprise. Also, there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of Cotton Processors and Marketers on 27 competencies in marketing for enhancing the entry of almajiris into marketing of cotton. The identified competencies in cotton production occupation and motivational strategies for the training of almajiris in cotton production were used to package the motivational training programme for the training of almajiris in cotton production. It was recommended that the identified motivational strategies with competencies in cotton production should be utilized by the state government in Northwest, Nigeria for training the almajiris in cotton production for entering into occupation in cotton enterprises.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Cotton (Gossypium spp) is a fibre crop grown in large scale in the Northwest zone of Nigeria. United Nation Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Report (2006) stated that cultivated cotton originated from Asia and Pre-Columbian America (particularly in Peru and Guatemala) and spread to Mexico from these regions. James (2008) explained that cotton is a variety of fibre crop of the genus Gossypium belonging to the malvacae family which comprises of approximately 1,500 species including the baobab trees. International Trade Centre (ITC) Report (2010) stated that four types of cotton are grown on a commercial scale in the world. They include Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium arboretum and Gossypium herbaceum. The report explained that Gossypium hirsutum accounts for 90% of the world cotton production, Gossypium barbadense, 8% while Gossypium arboretum and Gossypium herbaceum account for the remaining 2%.Gossypium hirsutum is the species mostly cultivated in Northwest,Nigeria because of its high yield and adaptability to the soil and climatic conditions of the area. Saro (2004) stated that cotton requires an arid climate with adequate water supply during the early stage of growth; it requires a well-drained and fertile sandy loam soil with a pH value of 6 to 8.00 for good growth.

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