**EFFECT OF USE OF JIGSAW STRATEGY ON CHEMISTRY STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENTS IN MOLE CONCEPT IN BOKKOS LOCAL GOVERNMENT**

**ABSTRACT**

*The main purpose of this study was to** investigate the **Effect Of Use Of Jigsaw Strategy On Chemistry Students Achievements In Mole concept In Bokkos Local Government**. Four research questions and six null hypotheses were posed and formulated respectively to guide the study. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. This study adopted a quasi-experimental research design, precisely nonequivalent control group design. A total of 156 chemistry students were used as sample for this study. A 30 multiple choice achievement test and mole concept interest scale were used to collect data for the study. Three experts validated the instrument. The instrument was trial tested and the reliability coefficient of 0.86 and 0.87 were obtained using Kuder-Richardson formula (KR-20) and Cronbach Alpha respectively. The Research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation and the null hypotheses were tested using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).The results of the study revealed among others that **Jigsaw instructional strategy improved students’ achievement **and interest **in mole concept ** than lecture method. The implications of the above findings were examined and it was recommended among other things that **the chemistry educators, federal and state ministries of education, and secondary school education management board should organize seminars, workshop, conference, and in service training to inform and train teachers on the use of Jigsaw instructional strategy.*

**CHAPTER ONE**

**INTRODUCTION**

**1.1 Background of the Study**

Education is shaped with respect to the demands of the changing world; a knowledgebased economy has shaped educational approaches, pedagogy and curriculum. Individuals and societies are being shaped spontaneously with respect to changing demands. Countries are beginning to start educational reforms to reach or keep pace with increasing knowledge (Tang et al. 2012; Dogan et al. 2015). This could be achieved through education by raising the individuals who have analytical thinking strategies. In this aspect, it is important that the individuals in the society have science literacy, understanding of science and ability of using scientific process. Active learning is one of the methods which can be used to reach the desired goals (Gardner and Belland 2012).

Active learning may trigger the situational interest of students in topics; thus, this may help students to understand conceptual facts (by using deeper processing strategies). Cooperative learning methods are also one of the active learning methods and it is based on simple psychological needs for competence which promotes learning (Rotgans and Schmidt 2011; Uyanik 2016). Active learning is a good way to facilitate learning because it enhances thinking strategies which in fact develops cognitive skills of students (Buckley et al. 2011; Byrd 2012).

However, to improve the students’ thinking strategies, it is also necessary to ask them appropriate questions. This means teachers should also be prepared for unexpected questions and answers from students. Moreover, it is also important to give students hands-on activities or homework since it is an essential tool of visualizing the lecture topics for the students (Shieh et al. 2010). Studies point out that students, when become teachers, tend to teach in the way they learned through their education life.

This means pedagogy or core concepts taught at school about teaching and information is not embraced by the future teachers but instead they tend to act with respect to facts based on their experiences. In that case, it is important to give information to students (future teachers) in a constructivist approach which may help the students to experience meaningful learning, and help their future students to achieve better meaningful learning (Tang et al. 2012).

Jigsaw technique is one of the active learning techniques used for educational purposes. This technique relies on sharing materials, purpose and time between students within a group. By doing this, it is assumed that students will benefit from each other, socialize, gain responsibility and regulate their learning (Doymus 2007; Yoonkyung and Yongseob 2015). Bonestroo and Jong (2012) pointed out that self-learning activities are one of the key factors increasing students’ critical thinking levels. However, it is also important to incorporate proper planning into learning activities since studies also indicated that planning has the biggest effect among the factors affecting students’ achievement. Cetin and Akkus (2016) also implied similar points of view. In their paper, they implemented jigsaw technique in the chemistry laboratory and they argued that if course content is not related with proper assessment then positive learning outcomes would not be achieved. Implementing cooperative learning in the right way not only increases academic success but also have positive effects on long term retention of knowledge (Dat 2016). Warfa (2016) in his paper showed that there is a positive relationship between cooperative learning and chemistry achievement. Similar findings were reached by Joel et al. (2016), pointing out that cooperative learning groups have better academic achievement than traditional groups and these findings are statistically significant. Yoruk (2016) used Jigsaw technique in Chemistry laboratory, and pointed out in his paper that using Jigsaw technique in chemistry laboratory increases students’ awareness towards chemistry, chemistry laboratory, and their surroundings along with increasing positive social skills.

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**1.2 Statement of the Problem**

There is consistent poor achievement of students in Chemistry at senior secondary school level. This poor achievement of students in Chemistry is suspected to be related and attributed to constant use of traditional teaching method (talk and chalk method) in teaching and learning Chemistry. Chemistry as a science subject is practically oriented, hence; there is the need to use innovative strategies such as Jigsaw instructional strategy that guarantees students’ active participation in teaching and learning encounter. Previous research reports show that the use of Jigsaw instructional strategy enhances students’ achievement in subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Biology and even Geometric Construction in mathematics. Thus, it is not known if the use of Jigsaw instructional strategy could help students to improve their achievements in mole concept in Chemistry. This gap is what the present study intends to fill.

It is against this background that the problem of this study put in question form is; would the use of jigsaw instructional strategy enhance students’ achievements and interest in mole concept than the lecture method ?

**1.3 Purpose of the Study**

The general purpose of the study is to investigate the Effect Of Use Of Jigsaw Strategy On Chemistry Students Achievements In Mole concept .

Specifically, the study intends to determine the:

- Mean achievement scores of students taught mole concept using Jigsaw instructional strategy and lecture method.
- Mean interest scores of students taught mole concept using Jigsaw instructional strategy and lecture method.

- Mean achievement scores of male and female students in mole concept .

- Mean interest scores of male and female students in mole concept .
- Interaction effects of teaching method and gender on students’ mean achievements scores in mole concept .
- Interaction effects of teaching method and gender on students’ mean interest scores in mole concept .

**1.4 Significance of the Study**

This study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the study is anchored on constructivist theory of learning. Constructivist theory of learning holds the view that students are active in the learning process that presents them the opportunity to think critically, and construct meaning from the learning activities. Jigsaw instructional strategy is an innovative teaching approach that enables students to think critically, work/solve problem in groups, and construct meaning from the learning content delivered in the classroom through group interaction and collaborative work. Thus, the findings of this study will help to support or reject the constructivist theory particularly through determining the effect of Jigsaw instructional strategy on students’ achievement and interest in mole concept .

The findings of the study in practical terms will be significant to the students, Chemistry teachers and curriculum planners. The study will be significant to the students in the sense that it will provide the students with the opportunity to work cooperatively. Through this cooperative work, the lower ability students will learn from the higher ability students. Furthermore, the students through this study will acquire skills that will help them solve mole concept problems in groups which by implication will enhance their achievements and interest in mole concept . The findings will provide Chemistry teachers with an alternative approach of teaching mole concept for easier understanding and effective application by students. It will provide insight on how to apply Jigsaw instructional strategy in the teaching of mole concept , thus, serving as energizer for more research work on Jigsaw instructional strategy in teaching other difficult concepts of the Chemistry curriculum. This study will provide useful information for teachers training institutions when publication on the work is made. Also as additional activity oriented teaching approach, institutions can then develop new programmes of instruction based on Jigsaw instructional strategy of teaching. Therefore, such programmes of instruction (instruction based, for instance, on the Jigsaw instructional strategy) can be passed-on to teachers through seminars and workshop who then pass the knowledge to the students.

On the part of the curriculum planners, this study will help them plan programmes that will enable students to develop and strengthen their achievements and interest in mole concept . This can be done by including Jigsaw instructional strategy as part of the teaching strategies for teaching and learning Chemistry in secondary schools.

**1.5 Scope of the Study**

The study will be limited to senior secondary 2-3 (SS2-3) students in Bokkos Local government , Plateau state. The choice of SS2-3 students is because the students by age can work cooperatively during teaching and learning process. The content scope of this study is on mole concept . The choice of this topic is because the students see it as an abstract and a difficult Chemistry concept.

**Research Questions**

The study following research questions guided the study.

- What are the mean achievement scores of students taught mole concept using Jigsaw instructional strategy and those taught with lecture method?
- What are the mean interest scores of students taught mole concept using Jigsaw instructional strategy and those taught with lecture method?
- What are the mean achievement scores of male and female students in mole concept ?
- What are the mean interest scores of male and female students in mole concept ?

** 1.6 Hypotheses**

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide and was tested at 0.05 level of significance.

**H01:** There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of the students taught mole concept using Jigsaw instructional strategy and those taught with lecture method.

**H02:** There is no significant difference in the mean interest scores of the students taught mole concept using Jigsaw instructional strategy and those taught with lecture method.

**H03:** There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students in mole concept .

**H04:** There is no significant difference in the mean interest scores of male and female students in mole concept .

**H05:**There is no significant interaction effect of method and gender on students’ achievement in mole concept .

**H06: **There is no significant interaction effect of method and gender on students’ interest in mole concept .