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EFFECT OF SELENIUM AND VITAMIN E ON THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF RABBIT DOES AND KITS

Animal Science Project Topics & Materials

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Certification    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Dedication      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Acknowledgements    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Table of contents        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

List of tables   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           viii

Abstract          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION        –           –           –           –           –           1

1.1       Background Information        –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2       Objectives of the Study –        –           –           –           –           –           –           3

1.3       Justification of the Study       –           –           –           –           –           –           3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW      –           –           –           –           4

2.1.      Rabbits (Oryctolagues cunniculus)     –           –           –           –           –           4

2.2       Common Breeds of Rabbits   –           –           –           –           –           –           4

2.2.1    Feeding and Nutrition in Rabbit         –           –           –           –           –           5

2.3       Reproduction in Rabbit          –           –           –           –           –           –           6

2.3.1    Anatomy of the Doe   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           6

2.3.2    Reproductive Activities                      –           –           –           –           –           6

2.3.3    Mating and Rebreeding of Rabbits    –           –           –           –           –           7

2.3.4    Weaning and Post-Partum Management of Kits        –           –           –           8

2.3.5    Factor Affecting Reproductive Performance of rabbit does  –           –           8

2.3.6    Heat Stress      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9

2.4       Residual Oxygen Species (ROS)        –           –           –           –           –           10

2.5       Oxidation Stress         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           10

2.6       Oxidative Stress in Female Reproductive      –           –           –           –           11

2.6.1    Follicles and Oxidative Stress            –           –           –           –           –           –           12

2.6.2    Endometrium and Oxidative Stress    –           –           –           –           –           12

2.6.3    Anti-Oxidants –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           12

2.7       Vitamin E        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           14

2.8       Biological Roles and Functions of Vitamin E            –           –           –           15

2.8.1    Gene Expression         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           15

2.8.2    Enzymatic Activity     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           15

2.8.3    Vitamin E as an Antioxidant  –           –           –           –           –           –           16

2.8.4    Vitamin E and reproduction   –           –           –           –           –           –           16

2.9       Selenium         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           17

2.9.1    Selenium in Reproduction      –           –           –           –           –           –           17

2.9.2    Vitamin E and Selenium         –           –           –           –           –           –           19

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS  –           –           –           21

3.1.      Location and duration of the study –  –           –           –           –           –           21

3.2.      Experimental animals –            –           –           –           –           –           –           21

3.3.      Experimental design – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           22

3.4.      Blood sample collection and analysis for oxidative enzymes

and gonadotropins      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

3.5.      Statistical analysis –     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           24

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS       –           –           –           –           –           –           25

4.0       Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation on

the Reproductive Performance of Rabbit Does and Post-Partum

Growth of Kits           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           25

4.1       Conception rate (%)    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           26

  • Doe body weight at Mating –           –           –           –           –           –           26
  1. 3. Gestation Length (Days) –           –           –           –           –           –           26

4.4       Doe Weight body weight Gain of Doe during Gestation      –           –           26

4.5.      Body Weight of Doe at Kindling (DBWK) (KG)     –           –           –           26

4.6.      Litter Size at Birth (LSB)       –           –           –           –           –           –           26

4.7.      Number of Still Birth (NSB) –           –           –           –           –           –           26

4.8.      Body weight of Litter at Birth           –           –           –           –           –           –           27

4.9.      Total Body Weight of Liter of Birth (g)         –           –           –           –           27

4.10.    Litter Size at Weaning (LSW)            –           –           –           –           –           27

4.11.    Body Weight of litter at Weaning (g/wt)       –           –           –           –           27

4.12.    Litter Total body weight at Weaning             –           –           –           –           –           27

4.13.    Pre – weaning weight Gain of Kit/Litter (g/kit)         –           –           –           28

4.2       Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation

on the Heamatological, Oxidative and Gonadotropin Characteristics

of Rabbit Does            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           28

 

4.2.1:   The effect of selenium and vitamin E supplement on the haemoglobin

of rabbit does. –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           29

 

4.2.2:   Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E supplementation on packed

cell volume (pcv) of rabbit does.        –           –           –           –           –           29

 

4.2.3:   Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E supplementation, on the

Red Blood cell of Rabbit does           –           –           –           –           –           29

 

4.2.4:   The effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E supplementation on

Neutrophil of Rabbit does.    –           –           –           –           –           –           29

 

4.2.5:   Effect of dietary and Vitamin E supplementation on Eosinophils

of Rabbits does           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           29

 

4.2.6:   Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E supplementation on L of

Rabbit does.    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           30

 

4.2.7:   The Effect of dietary selenium and Vitamin E supplementation on

follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion of rabbit does. –           –           30

4.2.8:   Effect of Dietary selenium and Vitamin E supplementation on

Luteinizing Hormone Secretion of Rabbit does.        –           –           –           30

4.3:      Effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation in diet of rabbit does

on oxidative enzymes characteristics. –           –           –           –           –           31

4.3.1:   Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation in diet of

rabbit does on             selenium (mg/dl)         –           –           –           –           –           31

4.3.2:   Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation in diet of rabbit

does on MDA (mg/dl) concentration in blood           –           –           –           31

4.3.3:   Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation in diet

of rabbit does on Catalase (u/l) concentration            –           –           –           32

4.3.4:   Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation in diet of

rabbit does on SOD    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           32

4.3.4: Effect of Se and Vit E supplementation in diet of rabbit does

on Glutathione Transferase (Hi)         –           –           –           –           –           32

4.3.5: Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation in diet

of rabbit does on Glutathione Peroxidase (UI) Concentration.          –           32

4.3.6:   Effect of Selenium of Vitamin E Supplementation in diet of

rabbits does on Glutathione (Hg/ml) concentration.   –           –           –           33

4.3.7:   Effect of Selenium and vitamin E supplementation in diet of

rabbit does on    reduced glutathione –  –           –           –           –           –           33

 

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION  –           –           –           –           –           –           34

5.1:      Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E Supplementation on

the Reproductive performance of Rabbits does and the pre-partum

growth of their Kits.   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           34

5.2:      Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E supplementation on

haematological indices and gonadotropin (FSH and LH) secretion

in Rabbits doe –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           35

5.3:      Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E supplementation on oxidative

enzyme status of rabbit does  –           –           –           –           –           –           36

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION    –           –           –           –           37

REFERENCES        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           38

APPENDIX 1            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1            Nutritional value of meat products from different animals    –           –           4

 

Table 2:           Effect of vulva colour on reproductive performance of does

using natural mating.   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

 

Table 3:           Effect of receptivity on conception rate and litter size of does

inseminated 11days after parturition. –           –           –           –           –           9

 

Table 4:           Effect of mating method on reproductive performance of does        –           9

Table 5:           Effect of dietary Se inclusion on the reproductive performance of

Rabbit Does    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           19

Table 6:           Effect of combined dietary inclusion of Selenium and Vitamin E

on reproductive performance of Rabbit Does            –           –           –           –           20

 

Table 7:           Proximate analysis of the experimental diet (Vita Grower feed)       –           22

Table 8:           Reproductive performance of rabbits does fed with selenium

and vitamin E. –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           25

 

Table 9:           Effect of Selenium and Vitamin E supplementation in diet of

Rabbit does on haematology characteristic and gonadotropin

(FSH and LH) secretion.        –           –           –           –           –           –           28

 

Table 10:         Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium supplementation in diet of

rabbit does on oxidative enzymes characteristics.      –           –           –           31

 

 

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of Vitamin E and Selenium on the reproductive performance of rabbit Does and Kits. Four groups of mixed breeds of rabbits (Newzealand white, Dutch black, and Chinchilla) 8-9 months old with an average body weight of 1.98±0.6kg were considered in the experiment. Each group was made up of 3does and a buck to serve them. All the bucks were fed the basal diet during the study alongside group 1 Does which served as the control. Does in groups 2, 3 and 4 Does were fed the basal diet supplemented with 40mg vitamin E (VE); 0.3mg Selenium (Se); and 40mg Vitamin E plus 0.3 Selenium (VE + Se) for 4 weeks respectively. From the study, there were no significant (P>0.05)  differences in the reproductive performances of Does except for body weight of litter at birth which was significantly (P>0.05) increased by Se and significantly decreased by VE + Se supplementation; and weight at weaning which was increased in the Se group. Blood Haemoglobin, PCV, RBC, and LH did not differ (P>0.05) from the control. Se and VE groups increased blood Neutrophils. In the VE+ Se group, Eosinophil and FSH were significantly (P>0.05) increased, while lymphocyte was significantly (P>0.05) reduced. However, Eosinophil and Lymphocyte were significantly (P>0.05) decreased in the VE group. For the oxidative enzymes, the Se, SOD, and Glutathione peroxidase were not influenced by the treatments (P>0.05). The Se group had a significantly (P>0.05) increased MDA and Reduced glutathione values. Glutathione level was significantly lowered in the VE and Se group. For the VE + Se group, MDA was significantly increased while Catalase was significantly (P>0.05) reduced. Other oxidative enzymes were not however influenced (P>0.05) by the treatments. In conclusion, in addition to improvement in the FSH and oxidative enzymes status of Does, there was also better reproductive performance when Se is supplemented at 0.3mg/kg diet.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background Information

The shortage of animal protein in the developing countries in the tropics has been long recognized and has remained one of the major limiting factors to the attainment of food security in Nigeria. The minimum protein requirement is estimated at about 75g/person/day out of which 40grams should come from animal protein (Akinwumi, 2011). Presently, animal protein consumption has been given as 7g/person/day by FAO (2014), which suggests a less than 16% contribution of the animal products to protein consumption. The situation is degenerating with time as the population growth is not equated with the corresponding increase in animal per capital production (Akunwumi, 2011). The demand and supply of meat have not been able to agree. The problem lingers due to the fact that 85% of the country’s meat supply comes from the cattle whose nomadic system of production does not encourage rapid production (Dung, 1992).

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