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EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PROTEIN SOURCES ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF AFRICAN GIANT LAND SNAIL (Archachatina marginata)

Animal Science Project Topics & Materials

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 Title page –    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Certification –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Dedication –  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Acknowledgement – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Abstract –       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Table of contents –   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vi

List of tables –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ix

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                  1

  • Statements of Problem – –           –           –           –           –           –           3
  • Objectives of Study – –           –           –           –           –           –           4
  • Justification – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Historic Background – –           –           –           –           –           –           5
  • Mating and Egg Laying – –           –           –           –           –           –           6
  • Growth of Snails – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7
  • Feeding – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8
  • Cannibalism by Hatchlings – –           –           –           –           –           9
  • Predators, Parasites and Diseases- –           –           –           –           –           9
  • Climatic conditions and soil characteristics – –           –           –           11
  • Feeding Pattern at various stages of Growth- –           –           –           12
  • Nutritive Value of Test Ingredients – –           –           –           –           12
  • Soybean – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           12
  • Groundnut cake – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           13

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS –          —         –           14

  • Location of Study- –           –           –           –           –           –           –           14
  • Materials and Duration of Study- –           –           –           –           –           14
    • Feed Ingredients and their sources – –           –           –           –           14
    • Experimental Animals and Duration of Study – –           –           –           14
  • Experimental Diets and Design – –           –           –           –           –           14
    • Experimental Diets – –           –           –           –           –           –           14
    • Experimental Design- –           –           –           –           –           –           15
  • Management of the Experimental Animals – –           –           –           16
    • Housing – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           16
    • Feeding and Watering – –           –           –           —         –           –           16
    • Sanitation – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           16
  • Parameters Measured – –           –           –           –           –           –           16
    • Body Weight – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           16
    • Feed Intake – – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           17
    • Shell Length and Shell Width – –           –           –           –           –           17
    • Carcass Parameters- –           –           –           –           –           –           –           17
    • Mortality – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           17
  • Chemical Analysis – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           17
    • Proximate Analysis – –           —         –           –           –           –           17
  • Statistical Analysis – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           17

 

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION     –           –           –           18

  • Experimental diets- – –           –           –           –           –           –           18
  • Growth performance of snails- –           –           –           –           –           18
  • Summary and Recommendations- — –           –           –           –           25

References –  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           26

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 1: Percentage Composition of Experimental Diets          –           –           15

 

Table 2: proximate composition of experimental Diet              –           –           18

 

Table 3: Initial body weight 0f snails fed varying levels of soybean and groundnut cake based diets. –       –           –           –           19

 

 

Table 4: Final body weight of snails fed varying levels of soyabean and groundnut cake based diets.            –           –           –           –           –           20

 

Table 5: Average daily weight gain of snails fed varying levels of soyabean and groundnut cake based diets.             –          –           –           –           –           20

 

Table 6:Average daily feed intake of snails fed varying levels of soyabean

and groundnut cake based diets.–  –           –           –           –          —         20

 

Table 7: Feed conversion ratio of snails fed varying levels of soyabean

and groundnut cake based diets.   –           –           –           –           –           22

 

Table 8: Protien efficiency ratio of snails fed varying levels of soyabean

and groundnut cake based diets.-  –           –           –           –           –           22

 

Table 9:Total shell length gain of snails fed varying levels of soyabean

and groundnut cake based diets.   –           –           –           –           –           22

 

Table 10: Total shell width gain of snails fed varying levels of soyabean

and groundnut cake based diets.   –           –           –           –           –           23

 

Table 11:  Cost of feed per kg weight gain of snails fed varying

levels of soyabean and groundnut cake based diets.     –           –           24

 

Table 12: Percentage shell weight of slaughtered snails fed varying

levels soyabean and groundnut cake based diets.          –           –           –           24

 

Table  13: Percentage edible weight of slaughtered snails fed varying

levels soyabean and groundnut cake based diets.          –           –           –           24

 

Table 14:   Percentage visceral weight of slaughtered snails fed varying

levels soyabean and groundnut cake based diets.          –           –           –           25

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

Heliculture, which is the process of farming or raising snails, has become very important in recent times because of increased animal protein shortage in Nigeria. Also, the availability of some edible snails in Nigeria, their popularity and acceptability nationwide, the potential for export, including the emerging technologies for their production have largely contributed towards the present renewed interest in snail farming (Amusan and Omidiji, 1998). Ebenebe (2000) pointed out that it is high time we looked inward and integrate into our farming system some non-conventional meat sources like snails. This will go a long way in reducing the problem of protein malnutrition, which is real in most developing countries of the world. These countries are mostly located in the warm humid tropics where the level of animal protein intake represents about one-tenth of the level of intake in the advanced countries (Esonu, 2001). Kehinde et al., (2002) reported that the protein consumption in Nigeria is below 67g recommended by the World Health Organisation.

Snail farming can conveniently be done in our back yards. This is due to the fact that snail farming is environmentally friendly and can be done with little skill (Akinnusi, 1998; NRC, 1991). The faecal matters neither smell nor make the environment filthy in any way. Snails are also good converter of vegetable protein to useful animal protein (Obi et al., 2001). They provide a very cheap source of high quality animal protein for human consumption. Snail farming is also a high profit-yielding venture and requires little capital when compared to other forms of animal farming. Thousands of land Snails can be raised in a small land space if intensively managed and there is always less need for vaccination and therapeutic drugs. Predators, parasites, and disease can easily be prevented through proper housing, management, and sanitation. These comparative advantages over other live stocks should be used as an edge to increase snail production.

 

Snail production has gone to an advanced stage in America, Europe and Asia but in Africa, much research work has not been carried out (Rebecca and Sheldon, 2004). The species of snail that are common in temperate regions are Helix aspersa, Helix pomatia, Helix lucorum, Helix cibeta, Iberus alonensis and Otala-puntata. Those species that are common in tropical African include Achatina achatina, Achatina fulica, Archachatina marginata, Archachatina ventricosa, Archachatina  degneri and Limicolaria species. In West Africa, Archachatina marginata of Nigeria and  Achatina achatina of Ghana are the two largest species of snails. Achatina achatina produces the highest number of eggs of about 100-500 eggs per clutch. Other snails of African origin produce less number of eggs of between 5-15 eggs per clutch. Achatina achatina is also known to be the tropical species of snail that is most accepted in the World market (Amusan and Omidiji, 1998).

Snail meat competes favourably with poultry egg and flesh in essential amino acids and digestible protein (Imevbore, 1990). It is essentially rich in lysine, leucine, isoleucine,phenylalanine,arginine and tryptophan and contains high level of iron, calcium and phosphorus (Dada et al., 1999).  The galacton present in its abdominal gland serves as a medicinal substance of high immunological value, which cures tuberculosis, ulcer, asthma and circulatory disorders. Okonkwo et al. (2000) also pointed out that snail meat is useful in the treatment of some human diseases like anaemia, hypertension, asthma, etc. while its shell can be used in the production of buttons, rings and other jewelry. It is unequivocally clear that the importance of improving snail production cannot be overemphasized.

Success in snail production involves among other things proper nutrition. Nutrients such as energy, protein and minerals should always be provided. According to Olomu (1995), protein functions mainly in tissue growth, Carbohydrate (in nitrogen-free extract) provides the necessary energy for metabolic activities, while calcium functions in shell growth (Akinnusi 1988). Stievenart (1992), Omole et al. (2000) and Ejidike (2001) pointed out the need to use complete balanced feeds in snail production. Feed formulated to meet the snails specific nutritional requirement has the effect of enhancing the growth performance of snails. Their maturity and attainment of market weight can equally be attained within a shorter time. The use of different protein feed ingredients is of immense value towards this achievement. The most expensive component of supplemental animal feed is protein. Therefore, the investigation of diet protein level requirement of Archachatina marginata is important using different protein sources. The study was aimed at evaluating the response, in terms of growth performance and nutrient utilization of Archachatina marginata fed different crude protein diets from different protein sources.

 

  • Statement of Problem

 

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