PURCHASE FULL WORK -3500

EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ALCOHOLICS IN NSUKKA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

Bio Chemistry Project Topics & Materials

ABSTRACT

This work was aimed at finding the effects of alcohol on some biochemical parameters. A total of one hundred and eighty (180) apparently healthy, non-hypertensive male alcoholics were used for the study. Forty (40) non-consumers of alcohol were used as control. The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the control was 10.50±2.00 IU/L while it was 16.50±1.50 IU/L; 17.50±2.00 IU/L and 18.31±2.00 IU/L in alcoholics who showed preference for palmwine, beer and distilled spirit respectively. Also, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the control was 9.51±0.35 IU/L while it was 18.44±0.40 IU/L, 19.21±0.19 IU/L, 20.32±0.64 IU/L i n alcoholics who showed preference for palmwine, beer and distilled spirit respectively. The ALT and AST activities of alcoholic subjects who showed preference for distilled spirit was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those who showed preference for palmwine and beer. The activities of alcoholics who showed preference for palmwine was the lowest. Furthermore, the serum total bilirubin concentration of the alcoholics was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the control. The serum total bilirubin concentrations were 18.65±2.10 μmol/l, 19.40±1.50 μmol/l and 22.75±1.60 μmol/l for alcoholics who showed preference for palmwine, beer and distilled spirit respectively. The serum total bilirubin of the control was 8.30 ± 2.00 μmol/l. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the alcoholic subjects was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with the control. The ALP activity of the control was 61.50 ± 30.00 IU/L while the ALP activity was 174.20±2.50 IU/L, 175.10±1.50 IU/L and 177.40±1.00 IU/L in the three categories of alcoholics who showed preference for palmwine, beer and distilled spirit respectively. Moreover, the urine total protein concentration of the alcoholics was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with the control. Alcoholics who showed preference for distilled spirit had urine total protein of 153.96±0.43 mg/dl followed by alcoholics who showed preference for beer and palmwine who had urine total protein of 152.74±0.42 mg/dl and 151.34±0.60 mg/dl respectivel y. The urine total protein of the control was 56.40±0.40 mg/dl. Furthermore, the urine specific gravity, serum urea and creatinine of the alcoholics were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the control. However, the plasma sodium, potassium and creatinine clearance of the alcoholics were significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the control. The body mass index (BMI) of the three groups of alcoholics fell within the range of 18.50 to 24.90. The blood pressure of both the alcoholic and control subjects were normal (below 140/90 mmHg). This work therefore shows that chronic alcohol use could induce both hepatic and renal dysfunctions in the alcoholics which manifested in form of adverse variations in some biochemical parameters of prognostic and diagnostic utility.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Alcohol

1.1.1    Chemistry of alcohol

1.1.2    Alcohol production

1.1.2.1 Beer production

1.1.2.2 The production of palm wine

1.1.2.3 Production of distilled spirit

1.1.3    Absorption, distribution and metabolism of alcohol

1.1.3.1 Absorption

1.1.3.2 Distribution

1.1.3.3 Alcohol metabolism

1.1.3.3.1   Alcohol dehydrogenase pathway

1.1.3.3.2   Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS)

1.1.4    Patterns of alcohol use and abuse

1.1.4.1 Psychological dependence

1.1.4.2 Physical dependence

1.1.4.3 Tolerance

1.1.5    Aetiology/causes of alcohol abuse

1.1.5.1 Biochemical basis

1.1.5.2 Psychosocial basis of alcohol abuse

1.1.5.3 Genetic factors

1.1.6    Effect of alcohol`

1.1.6.1 The effects of ethanol on the central nervous system

1.2       Microanatomy of the kidney

1.2.1    The nephron

1.2.2    Vulnerability of the kidney to alcohol toxicity

1.2.3    Renal function tests as indicator of alcohol induced kidney injuries

1.2.4    How alcohol-induced nephropathies affect glomerular filtration

1.2.5    Determinants of glomerular filtration

1.2.6    Creatinine clearance as a measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

1.3       Serum electrolyte and alcohol-induced renal dysfunctions

1.4       Alcohol induced pathological proteinuria

1.5       Urine specific gravity as an index of alcohol-induced renal dysfunction

1.6       Alteration in plasma urea concentration as a pointing indicator of renal dysfunction under the nephrotoxic assault of chronic and excessive alcohol abuse

1.7       Microanatomy of the human liver

1.8       The liver and alcohol metabolising system

1.9       The nature and metabolic roles of some alcohol metabolizing enzymes

1.9.1    Alcohol dehydrogenase

1.9.2    Cytochrome P450

1.9.3    Aldehyde dehydrogenase

1.10     Some alcohol-induced liver problems

1.10.1  Ethanol-induced liver dysfunctions

1.11     Alcoholic liver diseases

1.11.1  Hepatic steatosis (fatty liver)

1.11.2  Alcohol hepatitis

1.11.3  Alcoholic cirrhosis

1.12     Alcohol-induced liver degeneration and intracellular accumulation

1.13     Bilirubin metabolism and alcohol-induced liver dysfunction

1.14     Diagnosis of alcohol-induced liver problems

1.14.1  Enzymes of diagnostic utility in alcohol induced liver dysfunction

1.14.1.1           Aminotransferases

1.14.1.2           Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

1.15     Justification of the study

1.16     Aim and objectives of the study

1.16.1  Aim of the study

1.16.2  Objectives of the study

 

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1       Materials

2.1.1    Subjects used

2.1.2    Location/Zone of Study

2.1.3    Chemicals/Reagents/Samples

2.1.4    Instruments/Equipment

2.2       Methods

2.2.1    Experimental design

2.2.2    Collection of 24-hour urine sample

2.2.3    Collection of blood specimens

2.2.4    Experimental analyses

2.2.4.1 Determination of urine total protein concentration

2.2.4.2 Measurement of urine specific gravity

2.2.4.3 Determination of urea concentration

2.2.4.4 Determination of creatinine concentration

2.2.4.5 Determination of serum potassium ion concentration

2.2.4.6 Determination of serum sodium ion concentration

2.2.4.7 Determination of direct bilirubin concentration

2.2.4.8 Assay of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity

2.2.4.9 Assay of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity

2.2.4.10   Assay of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity

2.2.4.11           Assay of gamma-glutamyltransferase activity

2.2.4.12           Measurement of body mass index

2.2.4.13           Measurement of blood pressure

2.3       Statistical analysis

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS

3.1       Effect of alcohol consumption on urine total protein concentration in human subjects

3.2       Effect of alcohol consumption on urine specific gravity in human subjects

3.3       Effect of alcohol consumption on serum urea concentration in human subjects

3.4       Effect of alcohol consumption on serum creatinine concentration in human subjects

3.5       Effect of alcohol consumption on urine creatinine concentration in human subjects

3.6       Effect of alcohol consumption on creatinine clearance in human subjects

3.7       Effect of alcohol consumption on serum potassium concentration in human subjects

3.8       Effect of alcohol consumption on serum sodium concentration in human subjects

3.9       Effect of alcohol consumption on serum total bilirubin concentration in human subjects

3.10     Effect of alcohol consumption on serum alkaline phosphatase activity in human subjects

3.11     Effect of alcohol consumption on serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in human subjects

3.12     Effect of alcohol consumption on serum alanine aminotransferase activity in human subjects

3.13     Effect of alcohol consumption on gamma glutamyltransferase activities in humans subjects

3.14     Effect of alcohol consumption on body mass index in human subjects

3.15     Effect of alcohol consumption on blood pressure in human subjects

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION

4.1       Discussion

4.2       Conclusion

4.3       Suggestions for Further Research

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

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