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EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS REQUIRED BY BUSINESS EDUCATION GRADUATES FOR CAREERS IN ACCOUNTING AS PERCEIVED BY EMPLOYERS OF LABOUR IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

Vocational Technical Education Project Topics & Materials

EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS REQUIRED BY BUSINESS EDUCATION GRADUATES FOR CAREERS IN ACCOUNTING AS PERCEIVED BY EMPLOYERS OF LABOUR IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Approval Page                                                                                                            iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    v

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi

List of Figures                                                                                                             ix

List of Tables                                                                                                              x

Abstract                                                                                                                      xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                    1

Background of the Study                                                                                           1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                           10

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                  12

Significance of the Study                                                                                           12

Research Questions                                                                                                     14

Hypotheses                                                                                                                 14

Delimitation of the Study                                                                                           15

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                           16

 Conceptual Framework                                                                                          16

  • Employability Skills 17
  • Business Education Programme             38
  • Careers in Accounting 42
  • Employers of Labour 44

Theoretical Framework                                                                                            48

  • Kolb’s Skill Learning and Transfer Theory, 1984 48
  • Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence Theory, 1998 49
  • Yorke and Knight’s USEM Theory, 2004                                             49

Related Empirical Studies                                                                                        50

Summary of Literature Reviewed                                                                           55

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                                         57

Design of the Study                                                                                                    57

Area of the Study                                                                                                       57

Population for the Study                                                                                            58

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                                59

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                   59

Validation of the Instrument                                                                                      60

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                       60

Method of Data Collection                                                                                         61

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           61

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS                     62

Research Question 1                                                                                                   62

Research Question 2                                                                                                   63

Research Question 3                                                                                                   64

Research Question 4                                                                                                   65

Research Question 5                                                                                                   66

Hypotheses                                                                                                                 67

Hypothesis 1                                                                                                               67

Hypothesis 2                                                                                                               69

Hypothesis 3                                                                                                               71

Hypothesis 4                                                                                                               74

Hypothesis 5                                                                                                               75

Findings of the Study                                                                                                             77

Research Questions                                                                                                     77

Hypotheses                                                                                                                 79

Discussion of Findings                                                                                               80

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND

                                RECOMMENDATIONS                                                         85

Restatement of the Problem                                                                                       85

Summary of Procedures Used                                                                                    86

Implications of the Study                                                                                           87

Limitations of the Study                                                                                             88

Conclusions                                                                                                                 88

Recommendations                                                                                                      89

Suggestions for Further Study                                                                                    90

 

REFERENCES                                                                                                        91       

APPENDICES

  1. Letter to Validates 98

B:  Letter to Respondents                                                                                          99

C:  Copy of Research Questionnaire                                                                          100

D: Cronbach Alpha Coefficient Formula Used for Reliability Test

of  Instrument                                                                                                        105

E: Formula Used for Calculating the Mean, Standard Deviation and the

t-test Value

F:   Population Distribution for the Study                                                                 106

G:  Sample Population Distribution for the Study                                                     108

H: List of Organizations Sampled for the Study                                                       110

I:  List of Employers of Labor in Gombe State involved in Pilot Test                       114

LIST OF FIGURE

  1. Schema Representing the Concept of Employability Skills Required

by Business  Education Graduates for Careers in Accounting as

Perceived  by Employers of Labor                                                     47

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:     Mean Responses of Employers of Labor on Conceptual Skills

Required by Business Education Graduates for Careers in

Accounting                                                                                             62

Table 2:   Mean Responses of Employers of Labor on Technical Skills

                   Required in Business Education Graduates for Careers in

Accounting                                                                                             63

 

Table 3:     Mean Responses of Employers of Labor on Human Skills

Required by Business Education Graduates for Careers in

Accounting                                                                                            64

Table 4:     Mean Responses of Employers of Labor on Communication

Skills Required by Business Education Graduates for

Careers in Accounting                                                                            65

 

Table 5:       Mean Responses of Employers of Labor on Problem-Solving

Skills Required by Business Education Graduates for

Careers in Accounting                                                                          66

 

Table 6:     t-test Analysis of Difference between the Mean Responses of

Employers of labor in Teaching and Non-teaching Jobs on

Conceptual Skills Required by Business Education Graduates

for Careers in Accounting                                                                       68

 

Table 7:      t-test Analysis of Difference between the Mean Responses of

Employers of Labor in Teaching and Non-teaching Jobs on

Technical Skills Required by Business Education Graduates

for Careers in Accounting                                                                      70

 

Table 8:       t-test Analysis of Difference between the Mean Responses of

Employers of Labor in Teaching and Non-teaching Jobs on Human

Skills Required by Business Education Graduates for

Careers in Accounting                                                                          72

 

Table 9:       t-test Analysis of Difference between the Mean Responses of

Employers of Labor in Teaching and Non-teaching Jobs on

Communication Skills Required by Business Education Graduates

For Careers in Accounting                                                                       74

 

Table 10:      t-test Analysis of Difference between the Mean Responses of

                       Employers of Labor in Teaching and Non-teaching Jobs on

Problem-Solving Skills Required by Business Education Graduates

for Careers in Accounting                                                                         76

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to determine employability skills required by Business Education graduates for careers in accounting as perceived by employers of labor in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The study was guided by five research questions and five corresponding null hypotheses. Literature relevant to the study was reviewed. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study consisted of 2194 Heads of Department or Section of employers of labor in teaching and non-teaching jobs in Adamawa State, Nigeria, out of which seventy five were selected using convenience or purposive sampling technique. A structured questionnaire titled: Employability Skills Questionnaire for Employers of Labor (ESQEL) was used to collect data for the study.  Three experts face-validated the instrument Cronbach Alpha coefficient reliability index was used to test the reliability of the instrument and it yielded high reliability coefficient of 0.98. 75 copies of the questionnaire were distributed and all were returned duly completed. Data collected were analyzed using means and standard deviation to answer the research questions, while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that employers of labor required Business Education graduates to acquire the five  categories of employability skills for careers in accounting, as follows: Conceptual Skills, Required, Technical Skills, Highly Required, Human Skills, Required, Communication Skills, Required and Problem-solving Skills, Highly Required. The null hypotheses tested showed that there was a significant difference in the mean ratings between employers of labor in teaching and non-teaching jobs on all the five employability skill clusters. Based on the findings, it was concluded that all the five employability skills identified for the study were required by Business Education graduates for careers in accounting. It was recommended among others, that the universities, curriculum planners and implementers should pay much attention on the employability skill cluster items identified as highly required to improve on their provisions more than ever before so as to enhance Business Education graduates’ employability for careers in accounting.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Every nation depends greatly on the quality of her human resources for its developmental programs and wellbeing, and education has been identified as the major determinant of such quality. The natural resources in Nigeria as well as the global economic opportunities that abound cannot be exploited without an educational program that provides opportunities for all citizens to acquire employability skills for effectively exploiting those resources for human consumption. In order to provide the requisite employability skills, the Federal Government of Nigeria held its first National Curriculum Conference in 1969 to fashion out its educational curriculum contents and objectives to meet its manpower skills requirement for managing the various sectors of the economy including economic, social, political and technological sectors.

The sectors of any national economy cannot be managed very well if it is not guided by any policy framework. Nigeria saw this need in the education sector and developed its first National Policy on Education in 1977, revised in 1981, 1998 and 2004, to guide the implementation of the school educational programs that cut across board. The major emphasis on this policy is to educate the citizenry by equipping them with requisite employability skills and knowledge that will enable them become not only job seekers but also employers of labor, job creators and self-reliant. The policy document recognized Business Education as one of the educational programs that can provide vocational skills to recipients from lower to higher level manpower. It was because of the above recognition that the curriculum of Business Education was made dynamic to stand the test of time in providing the required employability skills for careers in accounting, marketing and business offices (Osuala, 2004).

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