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EVALUATION OF CONTENT AND READABILITY OF RECOMMENDED TEXTBOOKS ON AGRICULTURE FOR UPPER BASIC EDUCATION IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

Vocational Technical Education Project Topics & Materials

EVALUATION OF CONTENT AND READABILITY OF RECOMMENDED TEXTBOOKS ON AGRICULTURE FOR UPPER BASIC EDUCATION IN ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page                                                                                                                   i

Approval Page                                                                                                           ii

Certification page                                                                                                      iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                     v

Table of Contents                                                                                                      vi

List of Tables                                                                                                             vii

List of figures                                                                                                            viii

Abstract                                                                                                                     ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                    1

Background of the Study                                                                                           1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                           12

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                  14

Significance of the Study                                                                                           16

Research Questions                                                                                                     18

Scope of the Study                                                                                                     19

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                          20

 Conceptual Framework                                                                                                      20

Upper Basic Education Curriculum on Agriculture                                                    20

Agriculture Textbooks as Teaching and Learning Materials                                      23

Evaluation of Content of Textbooks                                                                         24

Evaluation of Readability of Textbooks                                                                     41

Schema on the Evaluation of Content and Readability of Recommended Textbooks

on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education                                                                 49

Theoretical Framework of the Study                                                                      50

vi

Picture of Evaluation Theory Tree                                                                              51

 

An Evaluation Theory Tree                                                                                         52

 

 Related Empirical Studies                                                                                       56

Studies on Evaluation of Content of Textbooks                                                        56

Studies on Evaluation of Readability of Textbooks using Cloze Procedure              59

Summary of Reviewed Literature                                                                           61

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                             63

Design of the Study                                                                                                     63

Area of the Study                                                                                                       64

Population of the Study                                                                                              64

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                                65

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                   65

Validation of the Instrument                                                                                      67

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                       67

Method of Data Collection                                                                                          68

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           68

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALISIS OF DATA                72

Research Question 1                                                                                                   72

Research Question 2                                                                                                   73

Research Question 3                                                                                                    74

Research Question 4                                                                                                   76

Research Question 5                                                                                                   77

Research Question 6                                                                                                   79

Research Question 7                                                                                                   81

Research Question 8                                                                                                   82

Research Question 9                                                                                                   83

Research Question 10                                                                                                 85

Research Question 11                                                                                                 86

vii

Research Question 12                                                                                                 88

 

Research Question 13                                                                                                 90

Research Question 14                                                                                                 91

Research Question 15                                                                                                 92

Research Question 16                                                                                                 94

Research Question 17                                                                                                 97

Research Question 18                                                                                                 100

Findings of the Study                                                                                                 104

Discussion of Findings                                                                                               105

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 111

Re- statement of the Problem                                                                                     111

Summary of Procedure Used                                                                                                  114

Major Findings of the Study                                                                                      115

Conclusion                                                                                                                  116

Educational Implication of the Study                                                                                    117

Recommendations                                                                                                      118

Suggestion for Further Studies                                                                                   119

Limitations of the Study                                                                                             120

REFERENCES                                                                                                        121

APPENDICES                                                                                                          126

Appendix A :  2009-2012 Recommended Textbooks on Agriculture in Enugu State 126

Appendix B:  2012-2015  Recommended Textbooks on Agriculture in Enugu State  129

Appendix C:  Summary of the three year Junior Secondary School Examination Results on Agriculture                                                                                                  141

Appendix D:  Request letter for Information on Book Review at Education Resource

Centre, Enugu                                                                                                 149

Appendix E:  Reconnaissance Survey: Questionnaire on Textbook Evaluation

viii

(A and B Versions                                                                                                      150

 

Appendix  F: The  Twenty- Seven Sampled Upper Basic Education Agriculture

Textbooks for Evaluation                                                                                           156

Appendix G:  Quantitative Approach to Content Evaluation of Science Textbook

(QACES T) Model                                                                                                     159

Appendix H:  Readability Tests  of Recommended Agriculture  Textbooks

(RTRAT)                                                                                                                     163

Appendix I:  Answers for Readability Tests of Recommended Agriculture   Textbooks  (RTRAT)                                                                                                                       188

Appendix J:  Reliability  Tests Results                                                                      217

Appendix K:  Report Sheets for Measurement of Topical Coverage                        220

Appendix L:  Report Sheets for Measurement of Learning Activities                      221

Appendix M:  Report Sheets for Measurement of Illustrations                                223

Appendix N: Report Sheets for Measurement of Chapter Summaries                      225

Appendix O:  Report Sheets for Measurement of Study Questions                         227

Appendix P:  Content Raw Scores for  Upper Basic Education I Textbooks          229

Appendix Q:  Content Raw Scores for Upper Basic Education  II Textbooks        230

Appendix R:  Content Raw Scores for Upper Basic Education III Textbook         231

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Appendix S:  Readability Raw Score for Upper Basic Education I Textbooks        232

 

Appendix T:  Readability Raw Score for Upper Basic Education II Textbooks      238

Appendix U:  Readability Raw Score for Upper Basic Education III Textbooks   244

Appendix V:  Population Distribution of  University Lecturers of Agricultural Education

in Nigeria and the Sampled Lecturers for the Textbook Evaluation                         250

Appendix W:  Population of Students in Enugu State                                              251

Appendix X:  Population and Sample size Distribution of Students for the Study in the Six Education Zones.                                                                                        258

Appendix Y:   Reconnaissance  Survey  Reports                                                      260

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

  

 

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List of table

Table 1: Topical Coverage Index scores of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education I

(JSSI) in Enugu State.                                                                                                72

 

Table 2 : Learning Activity Index scores of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education I

(JSSI) in Enugu State.                                                                                                73

 

Table 3 :   Illustration Index scores of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education I

(JSSI) in Enugu State.                                                                                                75

 

Table 4: Chapter Summary Index scores of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education I

(JSSI) in Enugu State                                                                                                76

 

Table 5: Study Question Index scores of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education 1

(JSSI) in Enugu State.                                                                                   78

 

Table 6 : Topical Coverage Index scores of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education II

(JSSII) in Enugu State.                                                                                   79

 

Table 7: Learning Activity Index scores of the nine recommended

Main textbooks on Agriculture for upper basic education II

(JSSII) in Enugu State.                                                                                   81

 

Table 8 : Illustration Index scores of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education II

(JSSII) in Enugu State.                                                                                   82

 

Table 9 : Chapter Summary Index scores of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education II

(JSSII) in Enugu State.                                                                                   84

Table 10: Study Question Index scores of the Nine Recommended

xi

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education II

 

(JSSII) in Enugu State.                                                                                                85

 

Table11: Topical Coverage Index scores of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education III                                 (JSSIII) in Enugu State.                                                                                    87

 

Table12: Learning Activity Index scores of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education III

(JSSIII) in Enugu State.                                                                                88

 

Table13: Illustration Index scores of the Nine Recommended

main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education III

(JSSIII) in Enugu State.                                                                                 90

 

Table14: Chapter Summary Index scores of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education III

(JSSIII) in Enugu State.                                                                                 91

 

Table 15: Study Question Index scores of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education III

(JSSIII) in Enugu State.                                                                                 93

 

Table 16: Readability score of each of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbook on Agriculture as obtained by Upper Basic

Education I     (JSSI) Students in Enugu State.                                             95

 

Table 17: Readability Score of each of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbook on Agriculture as obtained by Upper Basic

Education II   (JSSII) students in Enugu State.                                             98

 

Table 18: Readability Score of each of the Nine Recommended

Main Textbook on Agriculture as obtained by Upper Basic

Education III  (JSSIII) Students in Enugu State.                                          101

 

 

 

 

 

 

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List of Figure

Figure 1: Schemer onEvaluation of Recommended Textbooks on

Agriculture for Upper Basic Education in Enugu State.                                49

                                                                                   

Figure 2: Evaluation Theory Tree.                                                                             51

Figure 3: Readability Percentage Scores of the Ube I Textbooks in Bar Chart.       96

 

Figure 4: Readability Percentage Scores of the Ube II Textbooks in Bar Chart.     99

 

Figure 5: Readability Percentage Scores of the Ube III Textbooks in Bar Chart.    102

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

xiii

 

 

Abstract

 

xiv

The study was carried out to determine the adequacy of the content and the readability of the recommended textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education in Enugu state.                                                                                                                   Eighteen research questions were posed and answered by the study. Evaluation research design was adopted. The population of the study was the 29 recommended textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education schools in Enugu state. The sample for the study was 27 recommended main textbooks on Agriculture for Upper Basic Education schools in Enugu state. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the textbooks. All the 27 main textbooks which are separate volumes for either of the upper basic education I or II or III students’ class levels were selected. Quantitative Approach to Content Evaluation of Science Textbooks (QACEST) with A 5-point Quantitative model instrument was used by the expert lecturers to obtain information on the topical coverage, learning activities illustrations, chapter summaries and study questions variables of the content of the textbooks, while Cloze procedure was used to develop the Readability Tests of the Recommended Agriculture Textbooks (RTRAT) instrument, which was used to obtain information from the students on the readability of the textbooks. The RTRAT instrument is of three categories: RTRAT I version of the instrument for Upper Basic Education (UBE) I students, RTRAT II version of the instrument for UBE II students and RTRAT III version of the instrument for UBE III students. Each version of the RTRAT instrument test items were drawn from the passages of the textbooks for each class level. Each class level test items consists of 180 words which were omitted in the drawn passages and were filled by each students of a particular class level. The QACEST and RTRAT instruments were face validated by three experts. The temporary stability of the RTRAT instrument test items was determined using test re-test method. The sets of scores obtained were correlated using Spearman rank order correlation coefficient, which yielded coefficients of 0.85, 0.80 and 0.70 for RTRAT I, RTRAT II and RTRAT III versions of the instrument respectively. Three hundred and ninety-eight copies of the RTRAT questionnaire were administered to the students through the researcher and the three research assistants. All the administered 398 copies of the RTRAT questionnaire were retrieved and analyzed. QACEST Index which consists of  Topical coverage index (TCI), Learning activities index (LAI), Illustrations index (ILI), Chapter summaries index (CSI) and Study questions index (SQI) were used to analyze data that answered research questions 1 to 15, while percentage and bar charts were used to analyze data for answering research questions 16 to 18. It was found out that the content of 2 of the 27 evaluated textbooks were inadequate in learning activities, illustrations, chapter summaries and study questions variables. It was also found that 25 out of the 27 books were not readable while 2 were readable. It was recommended that the Enugu state ministry of education should ensure that the authors improve on their books by providing for the deficits found in the textbooks in their subsequent editions.

 

 

           

                                                

 
 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Agriculture is the art of growing crops and rearing animals for man’s use. Adelkan, Duru, Laleye, Bayero and Idowu (2009), defined agriculture as the  science and practice of cultivating the soil, growing, harvesting of crops and rearing of livestock to provide food for man and raw materials for industry. In the submission of Onuigbo (2009), agriculture is the cultivation of crops, raising animals, breeding livestock, processing, storage, distribution and marketing of agricultural products.

Agriculture is very important to man’s existence. Ojo and Olatunji (2012), noted that agriculture is important to man and the society in producing food for man and animals, clothing, shelter, fuel (fire wood), income and employment for the citizens. Other importance of agriculture is provision of raw material for industries, market for agro-allied industries and materials for recreation (horse for polo game and aquarium) among others. Importance of agriculture is implicit in the first goal of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which stipulated that poverty and hunger are to be eradicated in the world by 2015. The MDGs are eight goals articulated to address the world’s main development challenges, which are to be achieved by 2015. The MDGs were drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations and signed by 147 heads of state and governments during the United Nations Millennium Summit held from Wednesday 6th September to Friday 8th September 2000 at United Nations Headquarters in New York.  The eight goals as contained in the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2008) document are:

Goal 1is to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, Goal 2 is to achieve universal primary education, Goal 3 is to promote gender equality and empower women, Goal 4 is to reduce child mortality, Goal 5 is to improve maternal health, Goal 6 is to combat HIV/AIDs, malaria and other diseases, Goal 7 is to ensure environmental sustainability and Goal 8 is to develop a global partnership for development.

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