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Evaluation of quality of electricity power distribution in Ibadan

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Evaluation of quality of electricity power distribution in Ibadan: A case study of IBEDC

ABSTRACT

This study examined the Evaluation of quality of electricity power distribution in Ibadan, A case study of IBEDC. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the study area as well as the respondents. A total of 361 copies of structured questionnaire were administered to the residents in the study area, while 50 copies of questionnaire were administered to the IBEDC  Staff in the study area, out of which 361 and 50 copies of questionnaires were adequately filled and returned from the residents and IBEDC Staff respectively. The results are presented using tables. The result on the response of respondents on power supply hours show that most of the respondents (67.31%) reported that they have power supply for 12 hours, while only a few (2.22%) reported that they have power supply for 24 hours every day. In conclusion, to ensure effective distribution and utilization of electricity transformer, illegal connection should be discouraged by the stakeholders. PHCN’s management should develop a maintenance culture whereby the equipment are checked more regularly rather than waiting for the equipment to finally breakdown. They should also continue to upgrade their equipments in order to meet up with the demand of customers. There is the need for Federal Government to inject more funds into the power sector to enable them get more transformers to reduce overloads on the few existing ones.
 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

               Background of the Study

 
The Electric power sector is one of the most important sectors to national development. It is also critical to the developmental reform of any country. The Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) formerly known as the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) is an organization involved in the supply of electricity in Nigeria and presently due to privatization of the power sector, Ibadan state now has an electricity distribution power body called Ibadan Electricity Distribution Company (IBEDC). The power sector plays a very important role in the economic development of a nation; therefore, the growth of industries, agriculture, infrastructure, and the private sector is dependent on the state of the power sector. IBEDC, one of 11 Nigerian electric distribution companies privatized in 2013, covers the largest franchise area in Nigeria, as well as parts of Niger, serving over 1.7 million customers
The importance of electric power supply cannot be overemphasized as it is considered the most important commodity for national development. With electrical energy, people are empowered to work from the domestic level and the cottage industries, through the small-scale and medium industries to employment in the large-scale manufacturing complexes. In these days, depriving people of electric power is tantamount to castration (Musa, 2009).
Electric power is the engine that drives industrialization, which improves communication, helps innovation in science and Technology, provides sound healthcare delivery system and improves citizen’s standard of living. Since electric power is the engine that drives industrialization, a stable supply is the key for Nigeria to become one of the 20 developed economies in the world. However, it is unfortunate that the biggest problem in Nigeria is electricity crisis, a crisis without end. It was also revealed that the total grid capacity of 8,876 MW with only 3,653 MW available as at December 2009. Thus available power was less than 41% of the total installed capacity. Some of the other problems identified included among others corruption, poor maintenance, mismanagement, inadequate funding and lack of energy remix. It is worth to note that the appalling levels of the nation’s infrastructure, namely power supply, water, telecommunication and even , petroleum product supply are all indication of an economy that is unhealthy as a result of PHCN’s inability to meet electricity demand (Stanley, 2012).
Electricity is known worldwide except Nigeria as a versatile relatively cheap and cost effective means of providing energy in any nation or community. It consists of three main hierarchical stages or subsystems known respectively as generation, transmission and distribution. It is effective and indispensable machinery for the rapid industrial and economic growth of any nation. However, the electricity supply in Nigeria is characterized by frequent power failures and load shedding (Kareem, 2006).
Generally, electricity could be accepted to mean supply of electric current. This involves generation, transmission and distribution of the electric current to consumers. Electricity is an aspect of the utility sector that is very essential to the smooth and meaningful development of a society. It supports the economy and promotes the well-being of individuals. Efficient functioning of this utility is of paramount importance for the sustenance of its growth and consequential realization of its planning and managerial objectives (Emengini, 2004). Electrical energy has become one of the most important things in people’s life. This energy is supposed to be supplied to all houses and industries, although voltage fluctuation can cause problems but to avoid this kind of problem, electrical transformers are installed near the users. Transformer is a device which changes electric voltage from one circuit to another electric circuit through electromagnetic induction. These are for increasing or decreasing the voltage which comes from substation. There are many varieties of transformers which supply electricity to houses. They include custom current transformer, high transformer voltage, fly back transformer, electrical transformer, audio transformer, isolation transformer, step up and step down transformer and power transformer (Adetoro, 2002).
Generally the houses are supplied with electricity at limited amount of voltage(Adetoro, 2002). The voltage coming from power plant can be either high or low. These transformers are convenient, efficient and easy way of transferring electric energy to residential and commercial places. Electric power is used more efficiently than before and therefore, transformers help in transferring these powers to houses. These transformers can transfer power to far places in easy and efficient manner and they are also cost effective. Hence they have become a necessity in people’s lives.
According to Arunagiri and Agarwal (2005) distributing transformers can also be fitted with meters so that loading of the transformers can be monitored on a real-time and the need for new transformers can be decided. This can be made visual by assigning a different color on the map for a transformer once it is overloaded hence giving a proper warning. Any aberration can be easily detected.
 

               STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 
The absence of up-to-date information about the facilities of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria, Plc is a great hindrance towards delivering effective power supply to the people. No less than 38 electricity generating turbines are grounded in various power plants in the country (Emengini, 2004). These technically faulty gas turbines are unable to generate their required power output, thus compounding Nigeria’s already poor electricity supply situation.
In recent decades, the Nigerian government has been given all manner of excuses for the recent drop in electricity supply despite assurances of improvement, but investigations have shown that it will take even a while longer before the country can experience some reprieve. This is because virtually all the generation plants are bugged down with one technical problem or the other.
The reality is such that even if the Federal Government fulfils its pledge to revamp these faulty plants, Nigerians will still not have enough power to meet their industrial and domestic energy needs. This statement was made by Clara in (Vanguard Newspaper, 2010 Vol 13 No 4).In Lagos state which is Nigeria’s commercial nerve centre, is estimated to require between 10,000 and 12,000 megawatts, MWs, whereas is only able to get a paltry 928MWs, out of the 3,714MWs generated, while Abuja receives a mere 44.2MW (Nwachukwu, 2009).
In recent times, the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) has been working hard to see to the realization of steady power supply in the country. Despite efforts by the then President Goodluck to  raise electricity output from as low as 1,600 megawatts to 4,000 megawatts and over on
e billion dollars spent in order to meet up with the mandate (Williams, 2010). Yet, erratic power supply and outages remain a major problem confronting the nation today. In this context, in as much as efforts are made towards efficient power generation, the subsequent transmission and distribution of the generated power should not be overlooked. Efficient functioning of the generated power cannot be achieved without proper record keeping and monitoring of the transmission and distribution network system.
 

               RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 
The research questions of the study are:
 

  1. What are the Number of Hours on Power Supply in Ibadan?
  2. What are the Nature of Electric Power Supply in Ibadan?
  3. Does Ibadan Electricity Distribution Company (IBEDC) responds to the issues of faulty transformers?

 
 

AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 
The aim of the study is on evaluation of quality of electricity power distribution in Ibadan: A case study of IBEDC.
The specific objectives are thus:

  1. To examine the number of hours on Power Supply in Ibadan Electricity Distribution Company (IBEDC)
  2. To investigate on the Nature of Electric Power Supply in Ibadan
  3. To analyze whether Ibadan Electricity Distribution Company (IBEDC) responds to the issues of faulty transformers

 

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 
The scope of the study is limited only to IBEDC staff and residents of Ibadan metropolis.

JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

 
The Evaluation of quality of electricity power distribution in Ibadan is very important in Nigeria. Access and utilization of this electricity infrastructure in Ibadan state has taken a declining trend over the years. Indeed there are a lot of electricity transformers all over the study area. Are they over utilized or are they underutilized? In many areas in Ibadan there exist a lot of illegal connections of wires which have greatly affected the proper transmission of power to the appropriate areas and have consequently resulted to the loss of some transformers due to overloads. Also, it has led to loss of lives and properties.
This research is timely considering the high rate of illegal connection of electricity wires by residents and business people like the welders and the black market sellers of petrol who sell petrol at night in the study area. This study is therefore expected to serve as a way of proffering solution to the above problem. It will also enlighten the people in the study area on the effect of
over loading the transformers and the causes of over loading the transformers. It will go a long way on policy formulation on proper maintenance of the transformers by the PHCN staff and also the dangers of illegally connecting wires to high tension wires by residence. The database created as a result of this research will aid the PHCN to properly monitor the electrical facilities on ground and appropriately.
 

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