This study examined groundnut oil production and marketing in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to: examine the socio economic factors that influenced the production of groundnut oil; examine the socioeconomic factors that influenced marketing of groundnut oil; describe gender roles in the production and marketing of groundnut oil in the study area; describe the marketing channels employed in the distribution of groundnut oil; analyse margins of groundnut oil production and marketing; and identify constraints militating against the production and marketing of groundnut oil. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to stratify the state into northern (mostly Moslems) and southern (mostly Christians) areas. A total of 100 respondents (50 producers and 50 marketers) were randomly selected. Data were collected from producers and marketers based on the list from the extension agents using two sets of structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Multiple regression model, descriptive statistics and marketing margin analysis were used to achieve the objectives. Socioeconomic factor such as sex, education, occupation, and years of experience were significant at 1% level for production with an R- square of about 70%, while for marketing, age and education were highly significant at 1% level with an R-square of about 90%. Production of groundnut oil was dominated by females, while both sexes had almost equal percentage in the marketing of the product. More retailers (76%) bought groundnut oil directly from the producers at more frequent intervals because they had low capital base. But the wholesalers (24%) bought less frequently at larger quantities because of larger capital. The producer’s margin was 36%, with a Net Income of N43, 925.04 per annum. The wholesaler’s margin was 28% with a Net Income of N 615, 960.00 per annum, while the retailer’s margin was 36% with a Net Income of N 201,636.00 per annum. The total marketing margin was 100. The constraints of notable importance that affected production were lack of capital (92%), high cost of groundnut (82%), poor variety (50%), and crude processing method (70%). For marketing, high cost of groundnut oil (92%), high interest rate on borrowed money (80%) and fluctuation in price of groundnut oil (70%) and competition from other vegetable oils (50%). The production and marketing of groundnut oil if given a favourable environment by reducing the problems facing the industry to its barest minimum would thrive better. So, by way of recommendation, research institutes should be encouraged through adequate funding to produce high oil yielding varieties of groundnut. Loans should be made accessible and at reasonable and affordable interest rate to producers and marketers. The indigenous manufacturers should fabricate groundnut oil extractors and groundnut oil producers encouraged to use them so that larger quantities of oil would be produced to meet market demand at a relatively lower price. Proper market information should be disseminated so that all the market players would be in the picture and finally policies should be put in place to discourage unlawful importation of the vegetable oils into the country to avoid unnecessary competition in the market.