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GROWTH AND FATTENING PERFORMANCE OF YANKASA RAMS FED COMPLETE DIET CONTAINING UREA AND LIME TREATED GROUNDNUT SHELL (Arachis hypogaea)

Agricultural Science Project Topics

ABSTRACT
Two studies were conducted to determine growth and fattening performance of Yankasa rams fed complete containing urea and lime treated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) shell. The shell was treated with 5% urea, 5% lime and 2.5% of urea and lime for each known weight of the shell (50g/kg shell). In the first study four treatment diets were formulated containing 40% untreated groundnut shell (UNTGNS), 40% urea treated groundnut shell (UTGNS), 40% lime treated groundnut shell (LTGNS) and 40% urea plus lime treated groundnut shell (ULMTGNS). Other ingredients were maize offal, cotton seed cake, bone meal ruminants‟ premix and salt. 20 Yankasa ram lambs of 9-10 months were used and randomly assigned to the four treatments diets with five animals per treatment in completely randomized design (CRD). The diets were formulated to contain 15% crude protein (CP) content. The growth trial lasted for 90 days.
Three ram lambs from each of the treatment groups were randomly selected and housed in individual metabolism crates for digestibility Parameters measured were daily feed intake, daily weight gain; feed conversion ratio, blood metabolites digestibility, nitrogen retention, cost and apparent profit. Second study was conducted to determine effect of the treated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) shell in fattening Yankasa rams. The treatment diets were adjusted to 14% C P content. Sixteen Yankasa rams were used and randomly assigned to the four treatment diets with four animals per treatment in a completely randomized design (CRD). The fattening trial lasted for 90 days. Three rams from each of the treatment groups were randomly selected and housed in individual metabolism crates for digestibility study. Rumen liquor was collected. Carcass analysis was carried out using three rams from each of the treatment group. Measured parameters were feed intake, weight gain, digestibility, nitrogen balance, rumen microbial load, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, total volatile fatty acid, carcass characteristics and cost benefit. Results of the first study indicated that ram lambs fed ULMTGNS diet had the highest daily feed intake of 88.69g/day. However highest daily weight gain (94.66g) was observed in ram lambs fed LTGNS diet with least in ram lambs on UTGNS. In feed conversion ratio ram lambs on LTGNS diet had the least mean values (8.94) and were significantly (P<0.05) different from those on UTGNS and ULMTGNS diets. Ram lambs on UTGNSU diet showed better digestibility coefficient among the treatment diets (49.99%). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was higher than normal values reported by other authors (2.8-7.1Mmol/L). Creatinine range of (123.17-150.00Mmol/L) across the treatment diets was in conformity with the normal value (106-168Mmol/L). Total protein was within the range of the normal values (60-79g/L). The result of nitrogen intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in rams lambs fed ULMTGNS diet compared with the other treatment groups. Nitrogen retained as percent intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the UTGNS, LTGNS and ULMTGNS diets than the UNTGNS. Results of the economic analysis of growing ram lambs showed that ram lambs on LTGNS diet had the highest feed cost (₦5142.43) and those on ULMTGNS diet had the highest total weight gain (8.58Kg), followed by those fed LTGNS diet but a better apparent profit was realized from ram lambs fed UNTGNS diet (N1774.50). The results of the second study showed that rams fed UNTGNS diet had the highest daily dry matter intake (1027.37g) with least mean value in those on UTGNS. Rams fed UTGNS had the least daily weight gain (77.78g) rams on UNTGNS diet still had the highest daily weight gain. Feed conversion ratio was least but better in rams fed UNTGNS diet. Rams on UTGNSU diet had the highest digestibility coefficient in most of the feed components. Highest nitrogen absorbed and N retained as % intake were recorded in rams fed UNTGNS and ULMTGNS diets. Higher ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acids were observed in rams fed UNTGNS diet. On rumen microbial load, more bacteria were observed in animals fed UTGNS diet followed by those on UNTGNS diet. The dressing percentage of the rams fed UNTGNS diet (53%) was higher followed by those on LTGNS diet. But the meat yield percentage was higher in rams fed LTGNS diet, with a better meat bone ratio in rams on ULMTGNS diet. Results of the studies showed that daily feed intake and weight gain were better in growing ram lambs fed LTGNS diet, but for fattening, rams on UNTGNS diet had the better daily intake and daily weight gain. However, the cost benefit analysis of both the growing and fattening rams showed that rams on UNTGNS diet had the highest apparent profit followed by those on urea treated diet. It can be concluded that ground shell of groundnut can be used in diet formulation of small ruminants. Inclusion of up to 40% is recommended.

  TABLE OF CONTENTS  
Title page iii
Declaration iv
Certification v
Dedication vi
Acknowledgements vii
Table of Contents ix
List of Tables xvii
List of Abbreviations xx
Abstract xxii
CHAPTER ONE  
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Justification of the Study 3
1.2 Objectives of the Study 4
1.3 Hypotheses: 5
CHAPTER TWO  
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Origin, Distribution and Population of Small ruminants in Nigeria 6
2.1.1 Origin and distribution 6
2.1.2 Population 7
2.2 Importance of Small ruminants in Nigeria 7
2.2.1 Source of meat 7
2.2.2 Religious, social and cultural use in festival 8
2.2.3 Source of manure 9
2.2.4 Importance of revenue 9
2.2.5 An investment opportunity 10
2.3 Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria 10
2.3.1 Balami 11
2.3.2 Uda 11
2.3.3 Yankasa 12
2.3.4 West African dwarf sheep 12
2.3.5 Bororo 13
2.4 Small Ruminants Production Systems in Nigeria 13
2.4.1 Extensive 13
2.4.2 Semi-Intensive 13
2.4.3 Intensive 14
2 .5 Nutrients Requirements of Sheep 14
2.5.1 Energy 14
2.5.2 Protein  
2.5.3 Minerals  
2.5.4 Vitamins  
2.5.5 Water  
2.5.6 Ruminant premix
2.6 Factors Affecting Small Ruminants Production in Nigeria
2.6.1 Feeds  
2.6.2 Diseases  
2.6.3 Climate  
2.6.4 Others factors
2.7 Available Feed Resources for Ruminants
2.7.1 Crop residues
2.7.2 Rangeland feed resources
2.8 Groundnut as Feed Resources
2.8.1 Groundnut hay and haulm
2.8.2 Groundnut cake as industrial by- product
2.8.3 Groundnut shell
2.9 Limitation of Crop Residues as Feed Resources to Small ruminants
2.9.1 Availability
2.9.2 Nutritive value
2.9.3 Nutrients digestibility
2.9.4 Others limitations
2.10 Methods of Improving Crop Residues.
2.10.1 Treatment of crop residues
2.10.2 Supplementation
2.11 Effect of Crop Residues Treatment on:
2.11.1 Feed intake
2.11.2 Digestibility
2.12 Growth and other parameters in sheep
2.12.1 Growth  
2.12.2 Blood metabolites
2.12.3 Blood urea nitrogen
2.12.4 Blood creatinine
2.12.5 Blood total protein
2.12.6 Rumen metabolites
2.12.7 Rumen microbial load
2.13 Effects of Nutrition on Carcass Characteristics
2.13.1 Carcass quality
2.13.2 Dressing percentage
CHAPTER THREE  
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 83
3.1 Description of the Study Area 83
3.2 Source and Processing of Experimental Material 83
3.2.1 Ensiling 83
3.2.2 Experimental diets 84
3.3.1 Experimental animals and management 84
3.3.2 Experimental design 85
3.3.3 Growth feeding trial 85
3.3.4 Digestibility trial 87
3.3.5 Blood sampling 87
3.4.1 Experimental animals and treatments diets 89
3.4.2 Management and feeding of the experimental animals. 89
3.4.3 Digestibility study 91
3.4.4 Rumen liquor collection 92
3.4.5 Laboratory Analysis 92
3.5 Carcass Analysis 93
3.6 Statistical Analysis 93
3.7 Cost Benefit Analysis 94
CHAPTER FOUR  
4.0 RESULTS 96
4.1. Chemical Composition of the Untreated, Urea and Lime Treated  
    Groundnut Shell 96
4.2. Chemical Composition of Growth Experiment Diets 96
4.3. Performance of Growing Yankasa Ram Lambs Fed UNTGNS,  
    UTGNS, LTGNS  and ULTGNS in a Complete Diet 99
4.4 Blood Metabolites Characteristics 101
4.5 Nutrients Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention of the Growing  
  Yankasa Ram Lambs 105
4.5.1. Nutrient digestibility of the growing Yankasa ram lambs 105
4.5.2. Nitrogen retention 107
4.6 Cost Benefit Analysis 109
4.7. Chemical Composition of Fattening Diets 111
4.8 Effect of UNTGNS, UTGNS, LTGNS and ULTGNS Fed in a  
  Complete Diet on Fattening Yankasa Rams 113
4.9 Nutrients Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention in Fattening  
  Yankasa Rams 115
4.9.1 Nutrients digestibility 115
4.9.2 Nitrogen retention 117
4.10 Characteristics of Rumen Metabolites in Fattening Yankasa Rams 119
4.11 Rumen Microbial Load of the Fattening Yankasa Rams 122
4.12 Carcass Characteristics of the Fattening Yankasa Rams Fed Urea  
    and Lime Treated Groundnut Shell in a Complete Diet 125
4.13 Effect Urea and Lime Treated groundnut shell in a Complete Diet  
    on prime cuts of Fattening Yankasa Rams 127
4.14 Effect of Urea and Lime Treated Groundnut Shell in a Complete  
    Diet on Non Carcass Components of the Fattening Yankasa  
    Rams 129
4.15 Cost Benefit Analysis of Fattening Yankasa Rams 131
CHAPTER FIVE  
5.1 Chemical Composition of UNTGNS, UTGNS, LTGNS and ULTGNS 133
5.2 Chemical Composition of Growth Diets 133
5.3 Growth Performance of Growing Yankasa Ram Lambs Fed UNTGNS,  
  UTGNS, LTGNS and ULTGNS in a Complete Diet 133
5.4 Blood Metabolites Characteristics 134
5.5 Nutrients Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention 135
5.6 Cost Benefit Analysis 136
5.7 Chemical Composition of Fattening Yankasa Rams Experimental Diets 136
5.8 Fattening Performance of Yankasa Rams Fed Groundnut Shell Treated  
  with Urea and Lime in a Complete Diet 137
5.9 Nutrients Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention in Fattening  
  Yankasa Rams 138
5.10 Rumen Metabolites in the Fattening Yankasa Rams 139
5.11 Rumen Microbial Load of the Fattening Yankasa Rams 141
5.12 Dressing Percentage and Carcass Characteristics of the Fattening  
    Yankasa Rams Fed UNTGNS, UTGNS, LTGNS and ULTGNS  
    in a Complete diet 141
5.13 Carcass Prime Cuts of the Fattening Yankasa Rams Fed  
    UNTGNS, UTGNS, LTGNS and ULTGNS in a Complete Diet 142
5.14 The Non Carcass Components of the Fattening Yankasa Rams Fed  
    UNTGNS, UTGNS, LTGNS and ULTGNS in a Complete Diet 143
5.15 Cost Benefit Analysis of Fattening Yankasa Rams Fed UNTGNS,  
    UTGNS, LTGNS and ULTGNS in a Complete Diet 143
CHAPTER SIX  
6.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 144
6.1 Summary 144
6.2 Conclusion 146
6.3 Recommendations 146
REFERENCES 148

 

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