PURCHASE FULL WORK -3500

GROWTH AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF WEANER RABBITS FED MORINGA (moringa oleifera) LEAF MEAL

Animal Science Project Topics & Materials

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – — – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement- – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – — – – – vi
Table of contents – – – – – – – – – vii
List of tables – – – – – – – – xi
CHAPTER OF ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Objectives – – – – – – – – – 4
1.2 Justification of the study – – – – – – – 5
CHAPTER TWO
2.0. Literature Review – – – – – – – – 6
2.1 Origin and biology of the rabbit – – – – – 6
2.2 Importance of rabbits production – – – – – 8
2.3. Constraints in rabbits production – – – – – 10
2.4. Feeds and feeding – – – – – – – 11
2.5. Nutrient requirements of rabbits – — – – – 15
2.5.1. Energy Requirement – – – – – – – 16
2.5.2. Energy requirements for growth – – – – – – 18
2.5.3. Protein Requirement – – – – – – – 18
2.5.4. Protein requirement for growth – – – – – – 19
2.5.5. Fat Requirement – – – – – – – – 21
2.5.6 Minerals Requirement – – – – – – – 22
2.5.7. Vitamins Requirement – – – – – – – 23
2.5.8. Water Requirement – – – – – – – 24
2.6. Forage utilization by rabbits – – – – – – 26
2.7. Fibre digestion and utilization by rabbits – – – – 28
2.8. The role of fibre in rabbit nutrition – – – – – 30
2.9 Nutrient composition of forages used in rabbit nutrition – – 32
2.10 Characteristics of the tested forage (Moringa oleifera) – – 33
2.11. Soil and water requirement – – – – – – 34
2.12 Cultivation – – – – – – – – – 34
2.13 Chemical composition of Moringa oleifera leaves. – – – 35
2.14 Amino acid composition of Moringa oleifera leaves. – – 35
2.15 Utilization of Moringa oleifera leaves as animal feed nutrient- – 37
2.16 Medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera leaves – – – – 41
2.17 Other uses of Moringa oleifera leaves – – – – – 42
2.18 Plant growth hormones – – – – – – – 43
2. 19. Growth and development of rabbits – – – – – 43
2.20 Factors affecting rabbits growth – – – – – – 45
2.20 i Age and weight – – – — – – – – 45
2.20 ii Muscle development and growth — – – – – 46
2.20 iii Effect of feed nutrients on growth — – – – – 47
2.21 Hematological characteristics — – – – – – 48
2.22 Carcass characteristics/quality of rabbit meat – – – 48
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and Methods – – – – – – – 51
3.1 Location – – – – – – – – – 51
3.2 Experimental materials and duration of study – – – 51
3.3 Experimental Diets – – – – – – – 52
3.4 Proximate composition of experimental diet – – – – 53
3.5 Experimental animals and management – – – – 54
3.6 Data collection – – – – — – – – 54
3.7 Experimental design – – – – – – – 57
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Result – – – – – – – – – 58
4.1 Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on growth
performance of rabbits – – – – – – 5
4.1.1 Final average weight (g) – – – – – – – 59
4.1.2. Average daily feed intake (g) – – – — – – 59
4.1.3. Average daily weight gain (g) – – – – – – 59
4.1.4. Feed conversion ratio (g) – – – – – – – 59
4.1.5. Feed cost per kg gain (N) – – – – – – – 60
4.1.6. Feed cost per kg feed (N) – – – – – – – 60
4.1.7. Mortality – – – – – – – – – 60
4.2. Effect of Moringa olerifera leaf meal (MOLM) on the carcass
evaluation of rabbits – – – – – – – 60
4.2.1 Dressed weight (g) – – – – – – – – 61
4.2.2. Dressed percentage (%) – – – – – – – 62
4.2.3. Carcass length (cm) – – – – – – – 62
4.2.4 Head weight (g) – – – – – – – – 62
4.2.5. Thorax width (cm) – – – – – – – – 62
4.2.6 Loin weight (g) – – – – – – – – 63
4.2.7. Fore limb weight (g) – – – – – – 63
4.2.8. Hind limb weight (g) – – – – – – – 63
4.2.9. Liver weight (g) – – – – – – – – 63
4.2.10 Heart weight (g) – – – – – – – – 63
4.2.11 Kidney weight (g) – – – – – – – – 64
4.2.12 Lungs weight (g) – – – – – – – – 64
4.2.13 Spleen weight (g) – – – – – – – – 64

4.3. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on the
haematogical characteristics of rabbits – – – – – 65
4.3.1. Pack cell volume (PCV) – – – – – – – 65
4.3.2. Haemoglobin (HBg/d) – – – – – – – 66
4.3.3. Red blood cell x 106 – – – – – – 66
4.3.4. White blood cell x 103 – – – – – – – 66
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Discussion, – – – – – – – – – 67
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 72
5.3. Recommendations – – – – – – – – 73
REFERENCES – – – – – – – – 74

LIST OF TABLES
1.0 Nutritional requirement of rabbits at various physiological stages. 16
2.0 Energy requirement of rabbit 17
3.0 Essential amino acids requirement of rabbits 21
4.0 Major and trace minerals required in rabbit nutrition. 23
5.0 Vitamins requirements of rabbits. 24
6.0 Nutrient composition of some tropical forages used in rabbits, nutrition. 33
7.0 The chemical composition of unextracted and extracted moringa leaves 35
8.0 Amino acid composition of extracted and unextracted moringa leaves. 36
9.0 Mean allometric growth coefficient of rabbits main tissues and organs between 9 and 182 days of life. 44
10.0 Physiological blood chemistry in adults rabbits 48
11.0 The chemical composition of rabbit meats as compared with other animal meal 50
12.0 Percentage composition of experimental diets 53
13.0 Proximate composition of experimental diet 54
14.0 Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on growth performance of rabbits. 58
15.0 Carcass evaluation of rabbits fed Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) 61
16.0 Hematological characteristics of rabbits fed Moringa oleifera leaf meal 65

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The increasing demand for animal protein coupled with more stringent economic conditions have encouraged greater interest in fast growing animals with short generation interval. Poultry and pigs are the first choice but their production is more demanding because of the high cost of production and competition with man for feedstuffs. Fetuga (1997) reported on the disappointing rate and level of performance in the livestock industry in Nigeria. This he attributed, among other factors, to high cost of feeds arising largely from fluctuations in feed supplies, rising prices of ingredients, poor quality feeds, inefficiency in production and distribution in the feed industry.
Many investigators have suggested ways of increasing the low animal protein intake of Nigerians. One of the cheapest producers of meat that can easily fit into the wider segment of the population but which has been neglected in Nigeria is the rabbit. The rabbit has the ability to convert feedstuff such as forages, most agricultural by-products, kitchen waste etc that human being cannot consume directly into highly nutritious meat. Rabbits are highly prolific, cheap to feed because they can utilize roughage feeds, they have rapid growth rate, high dressing percentage, short gestation period and low purchasing price. However, efficient rabbit production is largely dependent upon adequate and correct nutrition (Standford 1979). There is no rabbit so good that poor nutrition will not ruin nor any bad one that good feeding will not improve.
A rabbit which is not well fed can not give its best, and when it is realised that the greatest cost of producing rabbits lies in the nutrition, correct feeding therefore becomes of utmost importance to the rabbit producer. The quantity of feed provided is important but the quality or type of feed is more important because poor nutrition result in slow growth rate, inefficient reproduction and predisposes the animals to diseases.
Aduku and Olukosi (1990) reported a digestible energy range of 10.00 – 10.46 MJ/Kg for optimum performance of rabbits in the tropics. The digestible energy (DE) level reported by these workers are, however, similar to digestible energy (DE) of 10.46 MJ/Kg recommended by NRC (1977) for growing rabbits in temperate zones. Aduku and Olukosi (1990) also reported a range of 2390-2500 K cal/Kg of energy and crude protein level of 12-17% for optimum performance of rabbits in the tropics. Fielding (1991) had reported a range of 16 – 18% crude protein (CP) as optimal for growing rabbits.
In recent years, there have been renewed interests in the use of non-conventional ingredients in feeds formulation for livestock. Standford (1979) reported that, there is a wide range of feedstuff on which rabbits can live on. Therefore, alternative feed sources need to be investigated such as, Moringa oleifera, the leaves of which have been used as animal feed in many places. Moringa oleifera leaves, stems, roots and other parts have been popularly used as animals feeds in countries such as Senegal, Niger, Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Gambia, Malawi, India, Spain, USA and Germany etc (Fugile, 1999). However, it potentials as an animal feed supplement have not been properly documented in Nigeria.
Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose browse plant with useful characteristics. The leaves and green fresh pods are used as vegetable by man and are rich in carotene and ascorbic acid with a good profile of amino acids (Makkar and Becker 1996). It is also used as livestock feed and its twigs are reported to be very palatable to ruminants and have appreciable crude protein levels ranging from 26 – 27 percent (Sutherland et al 1990, Sarwatt et al 2002, Kimoro 2002).
Fuglie (1999) stated that the high bioavailability of Moringa oleifera leaves and stems make them an excellent feed for cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and rabbits. The leaves of Moringa oleifera are an excellent source of the sulphur containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine, which are often limiting in most feedstuff used for feeding animals (Maroyi, 2006). Moringa oleifera leaves have also been used as an alternative protein source for tilapia fish production (Becker et al, 2002).
Mathur (2006) indicated that cattle fed with the leaf and green stems of Moringa oleifera can increase milk production by 43 – 65% and increased daily weight gain in cattle by up to 32%. Onimisi et al (2007) indicated that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can be included up to 30% in rabbits diet without any adverse effect on the growth performance. Moringa oleifera can also be included up to 20% in the diets of laying birds without any adverse effect (Kakengi et al 2007). The authors went further to state that, the high pepsin and total soluble protein makes Moringa oleifera leaf meal a more suitable feedstuff to monogastric animals.

GET FULL MATERIALS

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *