Impact Of Socio Economic Status Of Guardians On The Academic Performance Of Students
Background to the Study
Education is a fundamental human right, the key to sustainable development, a crucial tool for effective participation in societies and it enhances peace and stability among countries (Buchi, 2005). Posse and Melgosa (2006) identified three environments that must come into play in the educational process which include; the family, the school and the community. The researchers opined that for a successful educational process to be realized the objectives of these three environments must be harmonized.
Education according to Peter (2009) is the transmission of what is worthwhile to individual to individuals to make them knowledgeable and contributing members of the society. Education means all efforts towards the inculcation of the right attitude, habit, skills and knowledge necessary for proper adjustment of an individual in the society
Ford and Harris (2006) examined parental influences on African-American students’ school achievements. They focused on parents’ level of education, marital status and family income and found that children from high and middle socio-economic families are exposed to a better learning environment at home. This is because of provision and availability of extra learning facilities like computers, televisions, radios, different types of reading materials among others. They maintained that most students in low socioeconomic status families are not exposed to these learning facilities.
Okeke (2007) found four key variables as significant indicators of home environment that is conducive for learning in Enugu state. These variables are: Father’s and mother’s education, source of light, house hold materials and the academic materials like books for school subjects in the homes. She maintained that these variables play a pivotal role in children’s education.
The Government of Nigeria upholds education as a fundamental human right and recognizes that it is crucial for the attainment of self-fulfilment and National Development. The Nigeria government has made consistent efforts like Building of New classroom, providing Instructional Materials, Textbooks, Creating a conducive environment to enhance quality and equity in education to all Nigerians.
Education is undeniably important to every person. Through education, one gains knowledge and is able to enlarge his/her view of the world. Education also plays a rudimental role in our society and we cannot imagine a life without it. It is an element for civilization and does not only help to develop healthy surroundings but also generates an advance community or society. Education contributes tremendously in developing a child in the sense that it serves as mechanisms that allows a child to define and pursue his goals by participating in the society where he finds himself.
Family is a group of persons united by ties of marriage, blood or adoption constituting a single household and interacting with each other in their respective social roles. The family has been of great importance in shaping the performance of children (Buchi 2005). This is because academic performance of the children is usually as a result of motivation that children received from the people they interact with in their initial stages of life.
Bichi (2012) stated that family socio-economic status, which formed the subject of this study, includes housing condition, availability of reading materials and opportunities for intellectual development. Family factors, such as unsatisfactory housing condition may have a serious effect on educational achievement of a child. Families that are large in number, insufficient amenities, due to poor economic condition could distract the interest and attention of the learner, which may affect the whole process.
Education is a welcome addition, whereas on the other hand, children from unsatisfactory families or those lacking those materials or amenities go to school hoping to find the essential qualities lacking in their homes.
Naturally the expectation of these two categories of learners differs. The socio-economic status of the family has its own consequences to educational achievement. Inability to pay regular school fees due to unfavourable economic situation force some parents to send their children to substandard schools or even withdraw them from the school.
Where such resources and facilities are lacking it is inevitable that the learning of a child is seriously affected in terms of their educational process. The parents from low socioeconomic status cannot afford to provide all these materials resources that are very important for educational advancement of their children in school. The denial of such resources to their children is born out of the necessity of their economic circumstances, not because they do not have similar inspiration like the parents who have these materials resources at their disposal (Blake, 2002) cited in (Aliyu, 2006). In summary, researches elsewhere have shown that the socio economic status of parents has significant influence on educational achievement of a child. However, since “economics is a study of how societies use scarce resource to produce valuable commodities and distribute them among different people. Behind this definition are two key ideas in economics: that goods are scares and that society must use its resources efficiently” It brings us to the effect of Scio-economic status of parents on the academic performance of their children. Thus, in the school system, socio-economic status of parents is an economy and Socio-logical combined total measure of family economic and social position in relation to others, based on their income, education and occupation which influence the academic performance and behaviour of their children.
Statement of the Problem
The standard of education has fallen, therefore leading to lot of arguments among scholars and educationists. Teachers, government and students are often blamed for this phenomenon without investigating on other factors that could hinder high standard of education.
Every child in school performs in different way in terms of academics which may either be positive or negative. There are variations in the form where the children attend schools. In the recent times most parents, seems to be more interested in the feeding and clothing of their children than in their educational progress. Parents do not care about teaching and encouraging their children at home. They believe that the school teacher will do everything.
Some blame teachers and students for poor academic performance in the county. Many factors such as inadequate school facilities, cultural factors and inadequate teachers among others have been cited as the possible causes of poor academic performance in the county. However, parents’ socio-economic status is hardly mentioned. This study was therefore set to determine the influence of parental socio-economic status on students’ academic performance in secondary schools
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