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IMPACT OF SCHOOL CLIMATE ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN COMMERCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OHAFIA EDUCATION ZONE OF ABIA STATE

Vocational Technical Education Project Topics & Materials

IMPACT OF SCHOOL CLIMATE ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN COMMERCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OHAFIA EDUCATION ZONE OF ABIA STATE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                     i

Approval Page                                                                                              ii

Certification                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                   iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                      v

Table of Contents                                                                                        vi

List of Tables                                                                                               ix

Abstract                                                                                                       x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                             1

Background of the Study                                                                  1

Statement of the Problem                                                                  23

Purpose of the Study                                                                         25

Significance of the Study                                                                  25

Research Questions                                                                           28

Hypotheses                                                                                        28

Delimitation of the Study                                                                  29

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                           30

 

Conceptual Framework                                                                             30

  • School Climate 30
  • Commerce 35
  • Student achievement in Secondary schools 37
  • Engagement 40
  • Safety 51
  • Environment 56

 

Theoretical Framework                                                                             76

  • Kurt Lewin’s organizational development theory, 1940 76
  • Albert Bandura’s Social cognitive theory, 1986, and 77
  • Max McCombs’ Self system theory, 1986 78

 

Related Empirical Studies                                                                        79

Summary of Reviewed Literature                                                             85

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                        88

 

Design of the Study                                                                           88

Area of the Study                                                                              89

Population for the Study                                                                             89

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                      90

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                   90

Validation of the Instrument                                                             91

Reliability of the Instrument                                                             91

Method of Data Collection                                                                 92

Method of Data Analysis                                                                   92

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA                93

Research Question 1                                                                          93

Hypothesis 1                                                                                     96

Research Question 2                                                                         97

Hypothesis 2                                                                                     99

Research Question 3                                                                         100

Hypothesis 2                                                                                     102

Summary of Findings                                                                        103

Discussion of Findings                                                                      109

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS         112

 

Restatement of Problem                                                                     112

Summary of Procedure Used                                                             113

Conclusions                                                                                       115

Educational Implications of the Study                                             115

Recommendations                                                                             117

Limitations of the Study                                                                    118

Suggestions for Further Studies                                                        118

 

REFERENCES                                                                                           119

 

APPENDICES     

 

Appendix A:          Letter to the Respondents                                                       127

Appendix B: Questionnaire                                                                         128

Appendix C:          Reliability of the Instrument                                                   137

Appendix D: Analysis                                                                                  138

Appendix E:          t-test statistics                                                                        139

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Tables                                                                                                         Pages

 

  1. Mean and Standard Deviation ratings of Commerce Teachers on

The Impact of engagement on the Achievement of Students

in Commerce in Secondary Schools in Ohafia Education Zone

of Abia State                                                                                      95

 

  1. t-test analysis on mean rating of Teachers in Rural Schools and

Teachers in Urban Schools on the extent to which engagement

Affects Achievement of Students in Commerce in Secondary

Schools in Ohafia Education Zone of Abia State                               96

 

  1. Mean and Standard Deviation ratings of Commerce Teachers

On the Impact of Safety on the achievement of Students in

Commerce in Secondary Schools in Ohafia Education Zone of

Abia State                                                                                          98

 

  1. t-test analysis showing mean ratings of Teachers in the Rural

area and Teachers in the Urban area on the extent to which

Safety affects the achievement of Students in Commerce in

Secondary Schools in Ohafia Education Zone of Abia State              99

 

  1. Mean and Standard Deviation ratings of Commerce Teachers

On the Impact of Environment on the Achievement of Students

in Commerce in Secondary Schools in Ohafia Education Zone

of Abia State                                                                                      101

 

  1. t-test analysis showing the mean rating of Teachers in Rural

Schools and Teachers in Urban Schools on the extent of

achievement of students in Commerce in secondary schools in

Ohafia education zone of Abia state                                                  102

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study was to ascertain the impact of school climate on students’ achievement in Commerce in secondary schools in Ohafia education zone of Abia State. The study utilized ex-post facto research design.  Three research questions were answered.  A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information for the study.  The target population comprised of 86 business teachers that teach Commerce in senior secondary schools within Ohafia education zone of Abia state. The sample size consists of the entire population of the Commerce teachers which is 85 Commerce teachers; hence no sampling technique was adopted for the teachers. The research instrument was subjected to face validation by three experts, two from the Department of Vocational Teacher Education and one from the Department of Psychology all from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The reliability coefficient of the instrument for the study was 0.91, 0.67, and 0.94 for clusters A, B, C, and overall cluster was 0.84, which was calculated using Cronbach Alpha Reliability method. The data obtained were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test for the hypotheses. Findings of this study revealed that even though school climate (engagement, safety and environment) influences students’ achievement, it is not being handled properly or taken care of in the schools in Ohafia Education Zone which was evident on the students’ achievement in Commerce in WAEC and NECO examinations as reflected in the statement of problem. For instance, on engagement, it was found that schools in the area do not give closer attention to students from other countries and ethnic groups in solving their academic problems; schools do not encourage students to enroll in different school programmes regardless of their ethnic group or race; and that students are not encouraged to chose commercial subjects of which Commerce is one of them irrespective of ethnic group among others. Also, on safety, it was found that there is always physical fighting among students; there are cases of harassment and bullying among students; there are cases of theft among students in the school; and that students are being truant in attending classes among others.  Similarly, on environment, schools in the area have no good building plan; there is no proper care and maintenance of the school facilities; the classroom has no modern gadgets (e.g, fan, air conditioner, sound furniture); and that there is no well equipped library. Findings equally revealed no significant difference in the mean ratings of urban and rural teachers on the extent engagement, safety and environment of school climate influence students achievement in the area. Based on the findings, it was concluded that teachers and school managers should make concerted effort in improving school climate within the zone since it holds a lot of promises for students, teachers and the school generally. Finally, it was recommended among others that school climate (engagement, safety and environment) should be enhanced by school management and teachers for improved academic achievement.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

School climate is a significant element in improving students’ academic achievement. Student achievement is a major objective of every educational delivery system. This objective can be achieved through comfortable school climate. School climate is an integral and indispensable component of the teaching and learning process in Nigeria and the world at large. Indeed, no meaningful teaching and learning can take place in an environment that is not conducive and safe to both learners and teachers. It is, therefore, imperative that educational stakeholders foster safety and security of school environments to facilitate increased learner enrolment, retention and completion and hence attainment and quality education (UNESCO, 2006).

Schools perceived as being positive, safe, and nurturing environments focused on student learning, perform better in examinations regardless of available technology or teacher training. This is not to say that a school with no textbooks will outperform one with textbooks based solely on environment, but that the learning environment and climate produced by the school as a whole may help or hinder learning.

The learning environment determines the quality of education. The quality of education tends to be evaluated in terms of the number of students passing national examinations (Ndiku, 2011). The expectation of parents is that their children perform well in national examinations in any secondary school attended as long as the criterion for admission to these schools is the same. This is not however the case as the perception among many parents is that some schools seemingly perform better than others. This has resulted in many parents rushing to secure admission in these better performing schools in the cities while the rest, with poor resources and facilities, continue to record low enrolment, let alone the poor performance in national examinations, that is West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO).

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