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INFLUENCE OF HAWKING ON CHILDREN’S DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

SOCIOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

INFLUENCE OF HAWKING ON CHILDREN’S DEVELOPMENT IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT
The study sought to find out the influence of hawking on children’s development. To carry out the research, four (4) research questions and four (4) hypotheses were formulated. The population of the study consisted of four hundred and forty (440) primary six hawkers, (174 boys and 266 girls) in Enugu metropolis. The instrument for collection of Data was Questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using weighted mean, standard deviation and t – test statistical tools. The findings of this study was that hawking affects child’s physical development by making the child to feel pains in some parts of the body, feel weak, fall sick, grow thin, expose the child to injury, kidnapping, rape, road accidents and diseases. Hawking affects children’s socio/emotional development by exposing them to early drinking of alcohol, it does not allow them time to play with their mates, visit their mates, they lack respect for elders, they fight and have low self-concept. Hawking also affects children’s cognitive development by not allowing them time to read their books, do their assignments, it affects their writing ability, due to tiredness, they sleep in the class while the lessons are going on, they are often too tired to listen to the teacher, their mates do better than them in the class work, they don’t attend school regularly and they score below average in class work. Hawking also affects children’s moral development in that even at their tender age children hawkers are being asked for friendship by adults, it exposes children to wayward life style, they watch bad films and read books that can make them have feelings for sex, young boys also have feelings to have sex with their girlfriends, it exposes them to stealing, telling lies and leads them to early moral decay in life. The hypothesis revealed that the responses of male and female pupils on the influence of hawking on physical development have no significant difference, the respondents unanimously agreed that hawking has negative influence on their physical development. The hypothesis showed that there is no significant difference in the responses of males and females with regard to the influence of hawking on social/emotional development. The respondents agreed that hawking negatively influences their way of interaction with one another and understanding of oneself as member of the society. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female respondents on the influence of hawking on their cognitive development indicating that hawking has effects on child’s academic pursuit. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of male and female hawkers with regard to the influence of hawking on their moral development. This means that both male and female children agreed to identified effects of hawking on childrens’ moral development.
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Certification page ii
Approval page iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgment v
Table of Contents vi
Abstract viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 13
Purpose of the Study 14
Significance of the Study 15
Scope of the Study 16
Research Questions 16
Hypothesis 17
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual Framework 18
Theoretical Framework 18
Empirical Studies 18
Summary of Reviewed Literature 19
Conceptual Framework 19
Concept of Childhood 19
Concept of Hawking 20
Causes of Hawking 23
Concept of Child Development 26
Education and its Importance to the Child 30
Education as Child’s Right 32
Child Abuse 34
¬¬¬THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Theory of Development of Arnold Gesell 36
Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura 37
Theory of Intellectual Development of Jean Piaget 38
Social Exchange Theory of Edward 39
REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL STUDIES
Child Hawking and Academic Performance 40
Interest in School Subjects of the Hawkers and non-Hawkers 41
Child Abuse and Neglect 42
Agony of Hawking among Primary School Children 44
Summary of Literature Review 47
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Design of the Study 49
Area of the Study 49
Population of the Study 50
Sample and Sampling Techniques 50
Instrument for Data Collection 51
Validation of the Instrument 51
Reliability of the Instrument 52
Method of Data Collection 52
Method of Data Analysis 53
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
Research Question One 54
Research Question Two 55
Research Question Three 56
Research Question Four 56
Hypothesis One 57
Hypothesis Two 59
Hypothesis Three 60
Hypothesis Four 61
Summary of the Findings 62
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS
AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of Findings 64
Conclusion 68
Implication of the Study 68
Recommendations 69
Limitations of the Study 70
Suggestions for Further Study 70
Summary 70
References 73
APPENDICES
I. Questionnaire 84
II. Reliability Analysis 89
III. Table showing Sample for the Study 97
IV. Result of Data Analysis 99

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