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INSTRUCTIONAL SKILL NEEDS OF TEACHERS FOR INCLUSIVE CLASSROOM IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN EBONYI STATE

Vocational Technical Education Project Topics & Materials

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Certification         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Approval Page     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgements        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Table of Contents –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

List of Tables       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ix

List of Figures      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        x

Abstract      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

Statement of the Problem        –        –        –        —       –        –        –        –        13

Purpose of the Study     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        14

Significance of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        15

Scope of the Study        –        –                  –        –        –        –        –        –        17

Research Questions                 –        –        –        –        –        –        –        17

Hypotheses –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        18

CHAPTER TWO:  REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Conceptual Framework         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        19

Concept of Inclusion      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        20

Concept of Inclusive Classroom-      –        –        –        –        –        –        24

Concept of Teachers      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        25

Concept of Special Educator – –        –        –        –        –        –        –        26

Concept of Instructional Skills         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        26

Concept of Gender and Location      –        –        –        –        –        –        31

Conceptual Relationship of the Variables  –        –        –        –        –        34

Theoretical Framework         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        35

Theory of Instruction –  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        35

The Human Relation School Theory –        –        –        –        –        –        39

Theory of Human Motivation                   –        –        –        –        –        –        42

The Social Learning Theory of Bandura     –        –        –        –        –        44

Empirical Studies         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        45

Studies on Inclusive Classroom       –        –        –        –        –        –        45

Studies on Instructional Skills –        –        –        –                  –        –        51

Studies on Gender and Location and Instructional Skill Needs        –        –        59

Studies of Location and Inclusive Education       –        –        –        –        –        63

Summary of Literature Reviewed   –        –        –        –        –        –        64

CHAPTER THREE:  RESEARCH METHOD

Design of the Study       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        66

Area of the Study –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        66

Population of the Study –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        67

Sample and Sampling Technique      –        –        –        –        –        –        68

Instrument for Data Collection         –        —       –        –        –        –        –        68

Validation of the Instrument   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        69

Reliability of the Instrument    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        70

Method of Data Collection      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        70

Method of Data Analysis        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        71

CHAPTER FOUR:  PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

Research Question 1      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        72

Research Question 2      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        73

Research Question 3      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        75

esearch Question 4         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        76

Hypothesis 1        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        78

Hypothesis 2        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        78

Hypothesis 3        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        79

Summary of Findings    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        80

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION,

                               RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY

Discussion of Findings  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        82

Conclusion –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        87

Educational Implications         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        88

Recommendations of the Study        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        89

Limitations of the Study          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        89

Suggestions for Further Studies        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        89

Summary of the Study   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        90

References  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        92

Appendices –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        101

LIST OF TABLES

Table                 

  1. Mean ratings and stand deviation of teachers and special educators on instructional skill needs of teachers for inclusive classroom. 72
  2. Mean ratings of and standard deviation of teachers and special educators on communication skill needs of teachers for inclusive classroom.  74
  3. Mean ratings of teachers and special educators on management instructional skill needs of teachers for inclusive classroom 75
  1. Mean ratings and standard deviation of teachers and special educators on motivational instructional skill needs of teachers for inclusive classroom.                                       76
  2. t-test analysis of the mean ratings and the standard deviation regular teachers and special educators on the instructional skill needs for inclusive classroom.  78
  3. t-test analysis of the mean ratings and standard deviation of the urban and rural teachers and special educators on the instructional skill needs for inclusive classroom 79
  1. t-test analysis of the mean ratings and standard deviation of regular teachers and special educators on the instructional skill needs for inclusive classroom                              80

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

  1. Conceptual Relationship of the Variables of the Study- 34

Abstract

The study investigated instructional skill needs of teachers for inclusive classrooms in Ebonyi state primary schools. The study sought answers to five research questions and two hypotheses. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consists of 880 primary school teachers and 50 special educators totally 930 in the three Education zone. Questionnaire was the major instrument for data collection. The instrument was validated by three experts, all from Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha statistics which yielded an estimated of 0.82; 0.59, 0.84 and 0.95. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while t-test statistics was employed in testing the hypotheses. Based on the analysis, the following major findings were made:  the assessment instructional skills of teachers are needed for inclusive classrooms , the communication instructional skills of teachers are needed for inclusive classroom , the management instructional skills of teachers are needed for inclusive classroom, the motivational instructional skills of teachers are needed for inclusive classroom. Based on the findings, it implies, that teachers should utilize instructional skills for effective teaching and learning in inclusive classroom. The study recommended among other things that seminars and conferences should be organized by teacher educators for teachers from time to time to keep them abreast of different instructional skills which they would be using in teaching their pupils, and finally, areas of further research were highlighted.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Education of persons with special needs is going inclusive after several years of exclusivist and separatist paradigm. The change in approach came as a result of a number of influence. Chief among them were the paradigm shift from defect to social model and the UN education programmes (Ozoji, 2008). The defect or “within-child model” is based on the assumption that the origin of learning difficulties lie largely within the child. The social model on the other hand is based on the proposition that society and its institutions account for the child’s impairment (Okeke Oti, 2010). The social model posits that society and its institutions are oppressive, discriminatory and disabling and that if any change is to be effected, attention needs to be focused on the removal of obstacles to the participation of people with disability in the life of the society and in changing institutions, regulations and attitudes that create and maintain exclusion (Mittler, 2000).

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