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KNOWLEDGE AND COMPLIANCE OF EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATES TO VOLUNTARY COUNSELLING AND TESTING FOR HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) AND ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS)

NURSING SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…………………………………………………………………………………. i
Certification page……………………………………………………………………… ii
Approval page………………………………………………………………………….. iii
Dedication……………………………………………………………………………….. iv
Acknowledgment………………………………………………………………………. v
Table of Content……………………………………………………………………….. vi
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………. vii
List of Figures………………………………………………………………………….. viii
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………… ix
Chapter One: Introduction
Background to the Study…………………………………………………………….. 1
Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………. 5
Purpose of the Study …………………………………………………………………. 6
Specific objectives of the Study……………………………………………………. 6
Significance of the Study…………………………………………………………….. 6
Research Hypotheses…………………………………………………………………. 7
Scope of the Study……………………………………………………………………… 7
Operational Definition of Terms…………………………………………………. 8
Chapter Two: Literature Review
Mode of Transmission of HIV……………………………………………………… 10
Methods of Preventing HIV Spread……………………………………………… 11
Concept of Voluntary Counselling and Testing for HIV/AIDS……….. 13
Knowledge of VCT……………………………………………………………………. 13
Concept of Compliance to VCT…………………………………………………… 14
Factors Affecting Compliance (VCT)…………………………………………… 17
Theoretical Framework……………………………………………………………….. 19
Conceptual Framework of the Study……………………………………………… 22
Empirical Review……………………………………………………………………….. 23
Summary of Reviewed Literature………………………………………………….. 30
Chapter Three: RESEARCH METHODS
Research Design………………………………………………………………………….. 32
Area of Study…………………………………………………………………………. ……32
Population for the Study…………………………………………………………………33
Sample…………………………………………………………………………………………33
Sampling Procedure……………………………………………………………………….34
Instrument for Data Collection………………………………………………………..35
Validation of the Instrument……………………………………………………………35
Reliability of the Instrument……………………………………………………………35
Ethical Consideration……………………………………………………………………..36
Procedure for Data Collection………………………………………………………….36
Method of Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………36
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULT
Demographic profile of Respondents………………………………………………..37
Research Question 1……………………………………………………………………….38
Research Question 2……………………………………………………………………….40
Research Question 3……………………………………………………………………….41
Research question 4……………………………………………………………………….42
Summary of Findings…………………………………………………………………….45
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Discussion of Major Findings………………………………………………………….47
Summary and Conclusion……………………………………………………………….50
Suggestion for further studies……………………………………………………………………………50
Limitation of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………….51
Implication of study……………………………………………………………………51
Recommendations………………………………………………………. ……………51
References……………………………………………………………………………..53
Questionnaire………………………………………………………………………….57
Appendix I…………………………………………………………………………….63
Appendix II……………………………………………………………………………..64
Appendix III……………………………………………………………………………65
Appendix IV……………………………………………………………………………66
Appendix V…………………………………………………………………………….67
Appendix VI……………………………………………………………………………68

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Demographic profile of respondents………………………………………………. 37
Table 2:Responses on-knowledge of VCT for HIV/AIDS…………………………….. 38
Table 3: Responses on knowledge of VCT for HIV/AIDS of male and
female students……………………………………………………………………………….. 39
Table4.Responses on knowledge of VCT for HIV/AIDS and
campus location……………………………………………………………………………….. 39
Table 5: Responses on compliance to VCT for HIV/AIDS………………………………. 40
Table 6. Responses on compliance to VCT of male and female students…………… 40
Table 7: Respondents condition for compliance to VCT
services for HIV/AlDS…………………………………………………… 41
Table 8: Responses on important factor that would make EBSU students use
VCT services for HIV/AIDS:……………………………………………………………. 42
Table 9: Chi square (x2) test of relationship of male and female undergraduates
to knowledge of VCT for HIV AIDS……………………………………………………..42
Table10:Chi-square test of relationship of campus location and knowledge……… 43
Table11: Chi-square of relationship of male and female and compliance to VCT
for HIV/AIDS………………………………………………………………………………………44
Table12:Chi-square of relationship of campus location and compliance
to HIV test…………………………………………………………………. 44

LIST OF FIGURE
Fig: 1 Conceptual framework adopted from HBM (Rosenstock, 1994) & theory of fear (Rachman, 1990)………………………………………………………………….. 23

ABSTRACT
Early detection and treatment of infected individuals is an important step in the control of HIV epidemic. Voluntary counselling and testing is a concept developed in this direction. The study was conducted to determine the knowledge and compliance of Ebonyi State University Undergraduates to VCT for HIV/AIDS using a descriptive survey design. The sample consists of 384 full-time undergraduates selected from 3 campuses by simple random sampling. Self structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data generated were analyzed and presented in frequency tables and percentages, chi-square (X2) was used to test the four hypotheses formulated for the study. The findings showed a good level of knowledge of VCT for HIV/AIDS (69.9%) among EBSU students. More knowledge existed among females (36.7%) although not statistically significant. Presco campus students (40.2%) have more knowledge than the other two campuses. All the students claimed to have done HIV test at one time or the other (i.e. did HIV test two times or more at three or six months interval voluntarily) but only 12.1% totally complied to HIV test voluntarily. Half of the respondents (73.4%) did HIV text “by own volition”. Confidentiality (78.7%) was the most important factor that would make EBSU undergraduates use VCT services for HIV test. The study noted that the number of students with good level of knowledge of VCT for HIV/AIDS did not reflect in the compliance level. It was recommended that awareness campaign on routine voluntary HIV test and safe behaviour practices to prevent HIV should be intensified to the public at large. Health care providers should ensure enabling environment that will make young people use VCT services for HIV test.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study
Globally about 70 million people have been infected with HIV virus while 35 million people have died of AIDS and 34million people were living with HIV by the end of 2011(WHO, 2014). An estimate of 0.8% of adults aged 15 – 49 years worldwide are living with HIV with variation in epidemics between countries and regions. Sub-Saharan Africa remains most affected with nearly 1 in every 20 adults living with HIV and accounting for 69% of people living with HIV worldwide (WHO, 2014). In Africa, an estimate of 1.7 million young people is infected annually (WHO /UN Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2006). Many youths engage in risky behaviours, with fewer than 10% of the sexually active adolescent females from countries in sub-Saharan Africa reporting condom use (Human Development Report, 2004). In Nigeria 3.4million people are living with HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, 2013).Thus voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for young people have been recognized as a major priority within the Nigerian HIV- prevention programme.

Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the process whereby an individual or couple undergo counselling to enable him/her make an informed choice about being tested for HIV ( Federal Ministry of Health, 2003). VCT is a major strategy designed by programme planners to combat the pandemic of HIV/AIDS in Africa (Bruce and Stellenberg, 2007). It involves community mobilization, education, increase in VCT sites, reduction of stigma, policies that protect human rights, counselling, rapid tests and confidentiality. VCT activities are implemented with other measures like sexual abstinence, marital fidelity, condom use and anti-retroviral drugs. Voluntary HIV test is an active search for HIV among healthy people and is therefore a fundamental aspect of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of HIV infection and AIDS (Park, 2007 and Ikechebelu, Udigwe, Ikechebelu & Imo, 2006). It offers holistic approach that can address HIV in the broader context of people’s lives. HIV screening is advocated for every individual from early teen years of life especially those who are sexually active or exhibit high risk behaviours ( injection – drug users and their sex partners, sex partners of HIV – infected persons and heterosexual persons with more than one sex partners). The age group coverage for voluntary HIV test is as low as 15 years in developing world since there is evidence that 25% of them have initiated sex by then (HDR, 2004). Apart from early exposure, young people are at risk of HIV infection because of lack of skill to negotiate safe sex behaviour and vulnerability to sexual abuse. This has necessitated the campaign on youth friendly programmes to encourage youths know their HIV status. According to WHO (2003), regardless of test result after the first test, routine check continues regularly at least every 6 months, but every 3 months for those that are sexually active. Each HIV test follows the process of pretest counselling, test and post test counselling.

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