PURCHASE FULL WORK -3500

LEGAL PLURALISM AND THE LAW OF INTESTATE SUCCESSION IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA

POLITICAL SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Content Page
Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgements iv
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
Acronyms xii
List of Statutes xiii
List of Cases xv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objective of the Study 8
1.4 Research Questions 8
1.5 Methodology 8
1.6 Significance of the Study 9
1.7 Scope of the Study 10
1.8 Conceptual Clarifications 11
1.9 Synopsis of the Chapters 12

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 13
2.1 The Concept of Succession 14
2.2 Nature of Plural Legal System 14
2.3 Concept of Customary Law 22
2.3.1 African Customary Law 24
2.4 Customary Law of the Yorubas 26
2.4.1 Succession 27
2.5 Theoretical Framework 27
2.5.1 The Historical Descriptive Theory 27
2.5.2 The Comparative Theory 28
2.5.3 Cultural Theory 29
2.5.4 Judicial Justice Theory 31

CHAPTER THREE: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF SOURCES OF NIGERIAN LAW

3.0. Introduction 34
3.1 meaning of Sources of Law 34
3.2. Classes of Sources of Law 38
3.2.1 Formal Sources of Law in Africa 38
3.3 Recognition of English Law in South-West Nigeria 39
3.3.1. Recognition of Rules of Common law, Doctrines of Equity and
Statute of General Application in Force in England on January 1st, 1900 40
3.3.2 The Statutes 42
3.3.3 Statute of General Application in England 43
3.3.4 Reception of English Law in South-West Nigeria 46
3.4. The Main Basis of Construction of Statutes in Nigeria 49
3.4.1 Doctrine of Equity 49
3.4.2 Rivalry and Fusion of common law and equity 52
3.4.3 Nigerian legislation and Case law 53
3 4.4 Case Law 55
3.5 Customary Law as the fons et origo (source) in Southwest 59
3.5.1 Customary Law is the FonsEtOrigo (source) 60
3.6 Advent of Islamic Law in Southwest 63
3.6.1 Introduction 63
3.6.2 Conclusion 66

CHAPTER FOUR: DEVELOPMENT OF LAW OF SUCCESSION
4.0 Introduction 67
4.1 Development of Law of Succession under the General Law 67
4.2 Application of Received English Statute Governing the Distribution
of Intestate Estate 68
Content Page
4.3. Applicable Laws 69
4.4 Intestate Succession under the General-English Law among Yoruba People of the South-West Nigeria 70

4.5 Historical Posture of the Development of Intestate Succession 72
4.5.1 Common Law 72
4.5.2 Nature of intestacy in Nigeria particularly in South-West Nigeria 72
4.6 Intestate Succession under the English Law 75
4,7 Intestate Succession and the Marriage Act 76
4.8 Judicial Interpretation of Section 35 of the Marriage Act 77
4.9 Effect of Nature of Marriage 78
4.10 Rules Guiding the Distribution of Intestate Estate in Nigeria 81
4.11 Statutory Law Governing Intestacy Estate Administration 82
4.12 Exception to the General Notion of Statutory Rules of Administration
of Estate 84

4.13 Summary 85
CHAPTER FIVE: LAW OF INTESTATE SUCCESSION UNDER THE CUSTOMARY AND ISLAMIC LAWS IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA
5.0 Introduction 86
5.1. Rights of succession under Customary Law of Yoruba People 86
5.1.1 The Essential Features of Customary Law 88
5.1.2 Customs and the Law 88
5.1.3 Bases of Distribution of Estate among Yorubas of South-West 90
5.1.4 The Role of Babansinku (Administrator) in South-West Nigeria 93
5.1.5 Modes of Distribution of Intestate Estate in South-West Nigeria 94
5.1.5.1 Nature of Property 95
5.1.5.2 Succession to Family Immobile Property 95
5.1.5.3 Self- Acquired Movable Property 96
5.1.5.4 Succession to Titles 97
5.2 Law Intestate Succession under Islamic Law 97
5.2.1 Historical Perspective of Islamic Law of Succession 98
5.2.2 Conditions in Pre-Islamic Arabia System of Devolution of Estate 98
5.2.3 Advent of Islam and Islamic Law of Succession 101
5.2.3,1 Daughter’s Share 102
5.2.3.2 Wife’s Share 104
5.2.3.3 Mother’s Share 104
5.2.3.4 Grandmother’s Share 105
5.2.3.5 Sister’s Share 105
5.2.3.6 Consanguine Sisters (same father but different mothers) 106
5.2.3.7 Uterine Sisters (same mother but different fathers) 106
5.2.4 Islamic Law of Succession in Nigeria 108
5.2.5 Nature and Content 109
5.2.6 Right of Succession by Muslim Faithful 109
5.2.7 The Arkanul – Mirath (The Key Ingredients of Succession) 110
5.2.8 Classes of Heirs under Islamic Law 111
5.2.9 Conditions for Disqualification 112
5.2.10 Inequality of Shares of Women and Men 115
5.3 Repugnancy Test and Validity of Yoruba Customary Law of Distribution
of Estate 119
5.3.1 Repugnancy Test 119
5.3.2 Repugnancy to Natural Justice, Equity and Good Conscience 120
5.3.3 Some Decisions of the Courts Enforcing the Concept 122
5.3.4 Misapplication of the Concept by the Court 123
5.3.5 Conclusion 129
CHAPTER SIX: CHOICE OF LAW PROCESS IN INTSESTATE SUCCESSION
6.0 Introduction 131
6.1 Technique of Choice of Law 131
6.2 Rules of Decision 133
6.3 Statutory Choice of Law Rules 133
6.3.1 Intendment of the Choice of Law Rules 133
6.3.2 Subjection to Customary Law 134
6.3.3 Areas of Influence of Customary / Islamic Law 136
6.3.4 Scope of the Rule 137
6.4 Consideration of the Statutory Choice of Law Rules 138
6.4.1 The High Court Rules 138
6.4.2 Intestate Succession under the High Court Choice of Law Rules: 139
6.5 Irrebuttable Presumption against the Application of Customary Law 141
6.6 Consequences of Contracting “Christian” Marriages Abroad 142
6.7 Implication of Marrying under the Marriage Act; Cap 115 LN 1958 144
6.8 Rebuttable Presumption in favour of Non-customary Law 146
6.9 Choice of law Rules in Intestate Succession under the Customary
Court Laws 148
6.10 Distribution under the Administration of Estate Laws 151
6.11 Conclusion 153
CHAPTER SEVEN: NEW DIRECTIVES ON LEGAL DEVELOPMENT
7.0 Introduction 155
7.1 Way Forward in Legal Development 155
7.2 Techniques of Unification of Laws 157
7.3 Ways and Means of Integrating of Laws by Legislation 158
7.3.1 Integration by Fusion 158
7.4 Reception of a foreign system of Law 160
7.4.1 Fusion by “cut and paste” approach: 160
7.4.2 Fusion by Harmonization 161
7.4.3 Theory of Equity of Apportionment 162
7.5 Conclusion 163
CHAPTER EIGHT: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
8.1 Summary 165
8.2 Conclusion 168
8.3 Recommendations 169
8.4 Contributions to Knowledge 173
8.5 Limitation of the Study 174
8.6 Suggestion for Further Studies 175 Biblioggaphy 176 Appendices 183

ACRONYMS
AG Attorney General
AC Appeal Court
All NLR All Nigeria Law Report
CCA Customary Court of Appeal
Ch.D Chancery Division
CJN Chief Justice of Nigeria
CJS Chief Justice of a State
ERN Eastern Region Nigeria
ENLR Eastern Nigeria Law Report
FCT Federal Capital Territory
FSC Federal Supreme Court Cases
H.C.A High Court Act
HCL High Court Law
HCLNR High Court Law of Northern Nigeria.
JCA Justice of Court of Appeal
JCLIL Journal of Corporate Legislature and International Law
KSL Kaduna State Law
LLR Lagos Law Report
LNR Laws of Northern Region
LWR Laws of Western Region
MUP Manchester University Press
NLR Nigeria Law Report
NNLR Northern Nigeria Law Report
NRN Northern Region Nigeria
NWLR Nigeria Weekly Law Report
RLAN Revised Laws of Anambra State, Nigeria.
SC Supreme Court of Nigeria Judgments
SALRC South African Law Region Commission
UPL University Press Limited
WACA West African Court of Appeal
WLR Weekly Law Report
WNLR Western Nigeria Law Report
WRN Western Region of Nigeria

STATUTES
Administration of Estates Law, Western Region, Nigeria 1958, Cap1, 1959
Administration of Estates Law, No 62, Laws of Lagos State, 1972
Administration of Estates Law, Cap1, Laws of Kwara State, 1991
Administration of Estates Law, Cap3, Laws of Lagos State, 1994
Administration of Estates Law, Cap1, Laws of Ondo State, 1978
Administration of Estates Law, Cap1, Laws of Ogun State, 1978
Administration of Estates Law, Cap1, Laws of Oyo State, 1978
1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Fundamental Rights(Enforcement Procedure) Rules 2009 with 2011 Amendments.
S24 of the Land Use Act (LUA)
Evidence Act (as amended in 2012).
German law of Inheritance: Interstate Succession 1/8/13.
Inheritance Law in Greece – Legal Information 1/8/13.
Interstate Succession Act 2009, Federal Republic of Ghana
Interstate Succession Bill, Republic of Ghana 2006,
Interstate Succession Act 2009, Federal Republic of Ghana
Republic of South Africa: Reform of Customary Law of Succession and Regulation of Related Matters Bill (2008)
The Married Women Property Act 1982
The Succession Law Edict, 1987 in Anambra and Enugu
The Matrimonial Causes Act, Cap220 LFN
Administration of Estate Law 1991, Cap 1 Law
Interpretation Act (repealed in 1964)
Laws of Federation and Lagos 1958, Cap 89
Interpretation Law, Cap 51, Laws of Northern Region 1959
Evidence Act, (as amended) 2011
Customary Court Law of Anambra State, Cap 49
Revised Law of Anambra, Nigeria 1979 No. 51
Order VII, Rule 36, Supreme Court Law Rules 1961
State Courts (Federal Jurisdiction) Act, Regional Courts
High Court Act (Lagos HCA) 2000
High Court Law (Northern Region) 1959
High Court Law (Eastern Nigeria) 1958
Sales of Goods Edict No. 15, 1990 KSL
Judicator Act 1873 to 1875
Nigerian Independence Constitution Act 1960
Nigerian (Constitution) Order-in-Council 1960
Section 13 Supreme Court Ordinance 1900
Manual of Anambra State Law (as reviewed in 1988)
Anambra State Succession Law Edict 1987
Customary Courts Manual, Lagos State
Customary Courts Manual, Oyo State
Customary Courts Manual, Ondo State
Customary Court of Appeal Manual, Ondo State.
Wills Act 1837
Wills (Amendment) Act 1852
Inheritance (Family Provision) Act 1938
Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependent Act 1975
Interstate Estates Act 1952
Interstate Succession Act No. 5, Zambia 1989

LIST OF CASES
Absi & ors v Absi Suit No. M/170/72 of 26/1/73Lag / CCHCJ/1/73, (unreported)
Lagos High Court @ p39………………………………………………………………….80
Abibatu Folahanmi v Flora Cole (1990) All NLR 310……………………………………96
Abeje v Ogundairo (1967) LLR9………………………………………………………….94
Abudu v Equakun (2003) 14 NWLR ( pt 840) at 313-314…………………………………9
Abibatu Folahanmi v Flora Cole (1990) All NLR 310 ………………………………….. 96
Adebusokun v Yinusa (1971) 1 All NLR. 225……………………………………..70, 125
Administration-General v. Egbunna & ors 18 NLR 1……………………………..…69, 80
Adagun v Fagbola (1932) 11 NLR110………………………………………………………6
Adeoye v Adeoye (1961) I ALL NLR 792…………………………………………………48
Adegbola v Folaranmi (1921) 3 NLR 8…………………………………………….143, 162
Adeniji v Adeniji (1972)1 ALL NLR (pt 1) 298……………………………………..93, 156
Afrotech Technical Services Nigeria Limited v M.I.A Sons Ltd (2000) 15
NWLR (Pt 692) 220…………………………………………………………………..48, 49
Agidigbi v Agidigbi (1996) 6 NWLR pt 45 p300………………………………………..85
Agbai v Okagbue ( 1991)7 NWLR (Part 204) 391 @416……………21, 60, 123, 13,1 126
A.G v Tunkwase 18 NLR 88………………………………………………………………..5
Ahmadu Sidi v Abdulahi Sha’aban (1992) 4 NWLR 113……………………………….105
Ajoke v. Fagbemi (1961) 1 ALL NLR 400……………………………………………….126
Ajayi v White (1946) 18 NLR 41…. ……………………………………………………145
Akinwale v Thomas Suit No M/178/81 of 14/7/88 (unreported Lagos High Court)……94
Akinnubi v Akinnubi (1997)2 NWLR pt 486@144. ……………………………….91, 170
Aku v. Aneku (1991) 18 NWLR (pt. 209) 280 ……………………………………………60
Alake v Pratt (1995) 15 WACA 20…………………………………………………32, 129
Alao & Another v Ajani & Another ( 1989) 4 NWLR 1(pt 113)………………………….97
Alfa & others v Arepo (1963) NWLR 95 …………………………………………………63
Allied Bank Nigeria Ltd v Regal Nigeria Ltd Suit No.PHC/204/86
delivered on 17/12/87………………………………………………………………………52
Amakwe v Anya 1936) 3 WACA 22……………………………………………………..142
Anekwe v Nwekwe2014 LPELR – 22724 SC……………………………………….165, 166
Arinze v Arinze (1966) NMLR 155………………………………………………………..48
Asiata v Goncallo (1900) 1 NLR 41……………………………………………………….81
Attorney General v John Holt & Co. (1910) 2 NLR1…………………………………46, 55
Attorney v John Holt & Co (1940) AC 231…………………………………………..45, 46
Attorney General v Egbuna (1945) 18 NLR 1…………………………………………..146
Bamgbose v Daniel (1954) 14 WACA 116 / 1955) AC 107…………………..32, 145, 146
Bello v Attorney General of Oyo State (1986) 5 NWLR (pt 45) 828……………………..58
Braihwaite V Folarin (1938) 4 WACA 76……………………………………………..…46
Bue & others v Magistrate, Khajeltsha & Ors, Commissioner for Gender (equally refers to as amicus currier) Mrs.Louis Chulborn Ukeje & others v Mrs. Gladys Ada Ukeje (unreported) 2014 LPELR 227 24 (SC) …………………………………………166, 173
Coker v Coker (1943) 17 NLR 55 ……………………………………………3, 6, 84, 144
Coodings Blessed v Martins (1942) 8 WACA…………………………………………..144
Couladrick v Harding (1926) 7 NLR 48 ……………………………………………………6
Cole v. Akinyele (1960) 5 FSC 84……………………………………………………….129
Coker v Coker unreported; Suit No M/135/69………………………………………………6
Cole v Cole (1898)1NLR………………………………………69, 76, 81, 82, 83, 146, 162
Danmole &others v Dawodu &others (1958) 3 FSC 46; (1962)1 WLR 1058 Privy Council
Dawodu v Damonle (1962) 1 All NLR 702…………………………………………..92, 124
Dede v. African Association Ltd. (1910) I ALL NLR 130…………………….……………45
Donoghue v Stephenson (1932) AC 562…………………………………………………..58
Dung Pan v Sale Daney (wom) 1 WRN 51 @ 63…………………………………………..61
Earl of Oxford’s case (1615) 1 Re-Chancery………………………………………….…..53
Eleke v Government of Nigeria (1931) AC 662 @67……………………………………..90
Esther Morolake v Oyelabi & Olopade Ake “A” Native Court 5/1943; Egba Court of Appeal 3/1944………………………………………………………………………..…….95
Falohun v Falohun (1944) 17 NLR 108……………………………………………………48
Godwin v Crowder (1934) 2 WACA 109………………………………………………….48
Global Transport Oceanic S.A. v Free Enterprises Nig. Ltd. (2001) WRN 136 (SC) 153..56
Hendersons Manchester v Jolaosho and others (1926) 6 NLR 19 @ 22 ………………….53
Joseph Osemweaite & Ors V. Otuti Idehen & Ors (1999) 6 NWLR (pt 198) 382 418……90
Johnson v Macauley (1961) ALL NLR 773……………………………………………….97
Kediri Adigun v Fagbile (1932) 11 NLR 110………………….…………………………..97
Kharie Zaidan v Khalil Molisen (1973) ANLR 8…………………………………….10, 150
Kidney v Military Government of Plateau State(1988) 2 NWLR (pt 17) 145…………….62
Koney v United Trading Co Ltd (1934) 2 WACA 188 at page 196……………62, 136, 141
Labinjoh v Abake (1924) 5 NLR 33…………………………………………………46, 140
Lewis v Bankole (1909) 1 NLR at 100 – 101 ………………………….62, 91, 94, 120, 122
Laoye & Others v Oyetunde (1944) AC 170………………………………………….63, 130
Mariyamu v. Sadiku Ejo 1961 NLNLR 81………………………………………………123
Malomo v Olusola (1954) 21 NLR 1………………………………………………………46
Meribe v. Egwu (1976) 3 SC 50…………………………………………………….124, 128
Miler Brus v Ayeni (1924) 5 NLR 42………………………………………….……………6
Mojekwu v Mojekwu (1997)7 NWLR (pt 572) 283 / (2000) 5 NWLR (part 657) 402 ……………………………………………………………………………………21, 96, 120
National Electric Power Authority v Onab (1997) 1 NWLR 680 @ 688…………………57
Mensah v Atkins Ben 167…………………………………………………………………143
Nagle v. Feilden (1966) 2 QB 633………………………………………………………..128
Nofisatu Idumota & Ors v Sanusi Sanni Ijebu Ode Native Court 979/1948;
Judicial Council 15/1948…………………………………………………………..………95
Nzekwu v Nzekwu(1989) 2 NWLR (pt 104) 373; ………………………………………170
Obuzez v Obuzez (2001) 15 NWLR 377/ (2007) 10 NWLR pt 1043 p 430 ………84, 170
Obiekwe v Obiekwe (1963) VII ERNLR 196…………………………………………….170
Oduak v Ekong (2011) LPELR- 4209 (CA)………………………………………………..21
Ogiamien v Ogiamien (1967) NMLR 245 @ page 247……………………………………95
Ogunmefun v Ogunmefun (1931)10 NLR 82 ………………………………………………6
Oguigo v Oguigo (1999) 14 NWLR (pt 638) 283 SC …………………………………….21
Ojisua v Aiyebelehin (2001) 11 NWLR (pr 923) 44 at 52 ……………………………61, 62
Okon v Administrator-General (1992) 6 NWLR 248 @ 473……………….……………88
Olowu v Olowu (1985) 3 NWLR pt 13 p 372…………………………….5, 15, 19, 91, 150
Omolade Adelae v Sunday Adelae, Suit No AKCC1/309/2012; Appeal
No CCA / 5A /2014…………………………………………….………143, 148, 157, 167
Omole v Omole (1960) NR NLR 19 …………………………………………………….48
Omo-Ogunkoya v Omo- Ogunkoya and Another, (unreported Suit No LD/444/84 of 16/1/87), Lagos High Court………………………………………………………………..94
Onisiwo v Fagbenro (1954) 21 NLR 3………………………..…………………………….6
Omoniyi v Omotosho (1961) All NLR 304 …………………………………………..87, 90
Onyibor Anakwe & another v Mrs. Maria Nweke (2014) (PELR 22697(SC) …….165, 166
Osanwonyi v. Osanwonyi Suit No B/22/1968 (unreported)……………………………..123.
Oyewumi Agunbiade III v Ogunsesan (1990) 3 NWLR 182 @207. ………..….24, 25, .62
Panseca v Passman (1958) WNLR 41; 504……………………………………………..158
Rasaki v Adesubokun (1968) NNLR 97 at 100…………………………………………113
Re Shadu (1932) II NLR 37………………………………………………………….44, 45
Re Adadewoh (1955) 15 WACA 20……………………………………………………129
Re Subulade Williams (1940) 7 WACA 156…………………………………………….146
Re-Public Land Ordinance, Lamani Bole, Claimant-Exparte Joseph (1910) NLR 1…….46
Ribeiro v Chahin (1954) 14 WACA 476…………………………………………………..47
Rotimi v Savage (1944) 17 NLR 77……………….……………………………………125
R v Coker (1927) 8 NLR 7………………………………………………..…………..43, 44
Rylandws v Fletcher (1886) LR, 3 HL 330……………………………………..…………56
Salubi v Nwariaku (1997) NWLR 505, (pt 247) p 442…………………………….….77, 87
Savage v Macfoy 1909 Reners Gold Coast (Ghana) pt 304………………136, 141, 156,158
Savage vMcfoy (Rem 504) ………………………………………………………………..34
Shelle v Asajoh (1957) 2 FSC 65………………………………………………………….97
Smith v Smith (1924) 5 NLR 41…………………………………….….32, 76, 81, 145, 149
Sogunro Davies v Sogunro & Ors (1829) 8 NLR79……………………….………………97
Southern Pacific Co. v Jensen (1917) 244 US: 205…………………………………….…58
Sule v Ajisegiri (1937) 13NLR 146)…………………………………….…………..93, 169
Suberu v Sumonu (1951)2 FSC 33 / (1957) SC NLR 45…………………………..…19, 91
Tapa v Kuka (1945) 18 WLR 5……………………………………………………………19
Thomas v De Soniaza (1929) 9 NLR 81……………………………………………….46,70
Taylor v Taylor (1934) 2 WACA 126 /(1935) 2 WACA 48………….…………46, 48, 85
Uke & Alajiofor v Iro (2001) 17 WLR 172 ……………………………………………….21
Ukeje v Ukeje (2000) 5 WLR 142………………………………………………………..166
Vincent v Vincent (2008) 11 NWLR pt 1097 p 35 – 49……………………………………22
Ward v Lady Dudley (1705) Prec Chancery 241…………………………………….…….52
Williams v Ogundipe (2006)11 NWLR pt 990 p 157 ………………………………….…83.
Williams v Facode (1971)2 All NLR 194………………………………………………….86
Young and Anor v Abina and Ors (19400) 6 WACA 180 ………………………………180
Yakter v Government of Plateau (1997) 4 NWLR……………………………………….61
Zaidan v Molisa (1973)11 SC 1/ (1974) 4 UILR 283……………………………..…19, 150

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
A person may make an outright gift of his property, movables or unmovables when still alive, that is, inter-vivo. He may choose to make a gift of all or part of his estate by will which would take effect on his death. However, should he decide to die without distributing all or part of his property, he is said to have died intestate in respect of his entire estate or part of the estate left undistributed. In such a situation, the estate concerned will be distributed in accordance with the provision of the law governing intestate succession. This work seeks inter alia ascertain the applicable law of intestate succession under the Yoruba Customary Law of South-West Nigeria. It is obviously not sufficient to identify the rule of succession, as such, it is of paramount important to know when such rules will apply within the context of pluralism of laws in these states . The techniques of choosing one of several potentially applicable laws in any given situation is one of the main functions of science of conflict of laws. Usually, this choice is between territorially- based systems of law. However, the imposition of European Metropolitan laws on many countries in Africa and Asia has resulted in the co-existence of two or more systems of law in a single jurisdiction without spatial separation . Such a situation has come to be known as legal pluralism .

GET FULL MATERIALS

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *