The issue of change has always been a recurring one in organization.  Management has always had problems in initiating change in organizations because employees prefer to stick to the old method of doing things.  This project took a look at five firms to examine how change can be managed in these organizations while also getting the employee involved in the change process.  In achieving this objective, a number of research tools were employed such as the questionnaire, oral interviews etc.  In the course of this study, the researcher discovered that though employees would most times resist change, that there were processes to be taken in order to reduce this resistance to change, one of which was to ensure employee involvement in the change process.  It was conclusively deduced that managing change is a dynamic process which requires being constantly tuned in to what is happening around and monitoring the process carefully. This study recommended that for effective change process in organizations, top management must be committed to the change process; and most importantly the parties that would be affected by the change must be involved in the change process thus resistance to change will be reduced. It is the belief of the researcher that this study will become a reference tool for managing change in organizations.



CERTIFICATION                                                                                                ii

APPROVAL                                                                                               iii

DEDICATION                                                                                           iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                           v


ABSTRACT                                                                                               vi



1.1     Background of the study                                                                            1

1.2     Statement of the problem                                                                           2

1.3     Objectives of the study                                                                     3

1.4     Research Questions                                                                           3

1.5     Hypotheses of the study                                                                             4

1.6     Significance of the study                                                                             5

1.7     Scope of the study                                                                                      5

1.8     Limitations of the study                                                                    6

1.9     Profile of Selected Organizations                                                      6

1.10   Operational Definition of Terms                                                       8

References                                                                                         9



2.1     Introduction                                                                                                10

2.2     Conceptual Framework                                                                    10

2.3     Theoretical Framework                                                                     11

2.3.1           The Need for Change                                                     11

2.3.2           Preparing Organisational Change                                 12

2.3.3           Types of Change                                                            13

2.3.4           The Process of Organisational Change                                    15

2.3.5           The Management of Change                                          18

2.3.6           Strategies for Managing Change                                    22

2.3.7            Why Change Initiatives Fail                                         24

2.3.8           Reducing Resistance to Change                                               25

2.3.9             Models of Change                                                                  27

2.3.10         Organisation Development                                            28

2.4     Empirical Review                                                                              30

2.4.1           Stallionet Nigeria                                                           30

2.4.2           Community Pulse Newspapers                                                30

2.4.3           Anchor Insurance Company Limited                                       30

2.4.4           Oak Pensions                                                                 31

2.4.5           Platonica Architects                                                       31

2.5     Summary                                                                                          31

References                                                                                         32



3.1     Introduction                                                                                                33

3.2     Research design                                                                                33

3.3     Sources of Data                                                                                33

3.4     Population of the Study                                                                    33

3.5     Sample Size Determination                                                               35

3.6     Questionnaire Design                                                                        35

3.7     Administration of Questionnaire and Data  Collection                      35

3.8     Validity of Research Instrument                                                       36

3.9     Reliability of Research Instrument                                                    36

3.10   Method of Data Analysis                                                                           36

3.11   Summary                                                                                          37

References                                                                                         38




4.0     Introduction                                                                                                39

4.1     Data Presentation                                                                             39

4.2     Analysis of Data                                                                               39

4.3     Testing of Hypotheses                                                                      55




5.1     Summary of major findings                                                              70

5.2     Recommendations                                                                                      70

5.3     Conclusion                                                                                        72

5.4     Areas for Further Study                                                                    72

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                                                              73

APPENDIX 1                                                                                             75

APPENDIX II                                                                                             76

APPENDIX III                                                                                                   80

APPENDIX IV                                                                                           82



Table 4.2.1:          Distribution of Respondents by Age.                                      39

Table 4.2.2:          Distribution of Respondents by Sex.                                      40

Table 4.2.3:          Academic Qualification of Respondents                        40

Table 4.2.4:          Position of Respondents in Organisations                     41

Table 4.2.5:          Number of years you have worked with your Organisation                     41

Table 4.2.6:          Your Organisation needs change in certain areas to improve the organisation’s ability to meet and satisfy customer’s needs                                         42

Table 4.2.7:                    Employees are likely to resist change in your Organization                        43

Table 4.2.8:          Employees resist change in an organization due to fear, mistrust, misunderstanding and poor communication system                                                  43

Table 4.2.9:          Management’s involvement of employees in the organizational change process is a proper method for initiating organizational change                                                44

Table 4.2.10:        Education, Negotiation, Participation in the change process, and cooperation are measures that can be adopted by management to reduce employee’s resistance to change            45

Table 4.2.11:        Effectiveness of the change process can be enhanced by involvement of the parties’ beneficiary to the change                                                                  46

Table 4.2.12:        The Management of your organization should come up with change as often as the need arises                 46

Table 4.2.13:        Your organisation’s performance is strongly influenced by employees’ willingness to adopt to change              47

Table 4.2.14:        Effective communication between management and employees enhances quick adaptation to organisational change                                                      48

Table 4.2 15         What is your highest educational qualification?             49

Table 4.2.16         What is your current position in your organisation?      50

Table 4.2.17         What do you understand by change?                               50

Table 4.2.18         What is your view about periodic change in your

Organisation?                                                                    51

Table 4.2.19        Is Change really necessary in your Organisation?            51

Table 4.2.20        What aspects of Change do you think your

Organisation should particularly focus on?                      52

Table 4.2.21       Is your Organisation moving with global trends

as regards the matter of Organisational Change?                 53

Table 4.2.22       Do your fellow employees share the same opinion

with you as regards the matter of organisational

Change?                                                                               53

Table 4.2.23         Do you think your customers/clients are satisfied with

your Organisation’s current method of operations?          54

Table 4.2.24         What is your advice to your organisation as

Regards Change?                                                                55

Table 4.3.1:          Observed Frequency Table

Table 4.3.2:          Expected Frequency Table                                             57

Table 4.3.3:          Calculation of Chi-square Table                                              57

Table 4.3.4:          Observed Frequency Table                                            59

Table 4.3.5:          Expected Frequency Table                                             60

Table 4.3.6:          Calculation of Chi-square Table                                              60

Table 4.3.7:          Observed Frequency Table                                            62

Table 4.3.8:          Expected Frequency Table                                             62

Table 4.3.9:          Calculation of Chi-square                                              63

Table 4.3.10:        Observed Frequency Table                                            64

Table 4.3.11:        Expected Frequency Table                                             65

Table 4.3.12:        Calculation of Chi-square                                              65

Table 4.3.13:        Observed Frequency Table                                            67

Table 4.3.14:        Expected Frequency Table                                             67

Table 4.3.15:        Calculation of Chi-square                                              67

Table 4.3.16:        Table Summary of Tested Hypotheses                                    69





Change is pervasive in our society and a fact of life in organisations. The impetus to change comes from the environment. Change is about survival and it is especially necessary in organisations that wish to prosper in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. Powerful forces in the environment are pressuring public and private organisations to alter permanently existing structures, policies and practices (Ezigbo, 2011:177).

Organisational change is about making alterations to the organisation’s purpose, culture, structure and processes in response to seen or anticipated changes in the environment. Management of change is all about identifying and embedding in the organisation those changes that will ensure the long term survival of the organisation.

Change affects every aspect of life, thus taking a proactive approach to change is the only way to take charge of the future, either as an individual or as an organisation. For organisations, changes are the way to stay competitive and to grow. Managers introduce change to solve organisational problems such as low productivity, laissez-faire attitude, conflicts, etc (Heller, 1998:7).

Change and Change management are concepts that have in recent times assumed greater importance in organisations; this is because Change remains the most certain phenomenon in the life of an organisation. In this regard, organisations must consciously plan for managing Change if the benefits to be derived are to be maximized. In various organisations, there are both internal and external forces to change. Internal forces to change are those which come from within the organisation for which there is reasonable measure of control, External forces to changes are those which come from outside the organisation for which the organisation has little or no measure of control.

Managing change is a persistent challenge which must be met in order to promote progressive organisational performance, since this is so, a strategic manager must develop sensory networks, select the type of change, create the vision, alert the organisation, communicate the vision, create a sense of the urgency, manage the planning and execution process, empower others to act on the vision, plan to overcome resistance, consolidate improvements and institutionalize change.