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OPTIMIZATION OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM YELLOW OLEANDER AND CASTOR OILS AND STUDIES OF THEIR FUEL PROPERTIES

Chemistry Project Topics & Materials

Abstract

 

The optimization of biodiesel production from two non-edible oils and studies of their fuel and biodegradability properties was carried out. The two oil feedstocks (Yellow oleander and Castor oils) were extracted from their seeds using an oil expeller and their physicochemical properties such as iodine value, moisture content, saponification value, acid value, viscosity, specific gravity and refractive index were determined. Most of these properties were within the acceptable limit of American Standard Testing Method (ASTM). The methyl esters were optimized using methanol as solvent and by varying conditions like reaction temperature, reaction time, type and concentration of catalyst, molar ratio of methanol and oil. For maximum bio diesel production, the transesterification reaction showed that the concentration of alkali catalyst was 0.8 % sodium hydroxide, 0.33 %v/v alcohol/oil ratio, 1 hr reaction time, 60 0C temperature and excess alcohol 150 %v/v. Optimized parameters for production of biodiesel through base catalyzed transesterification gave maximum yield of 96 % and 98 % for yellow oleander and castor oil respectively. The Yellow Oleander Methyl Ester (YOME) and Castor Oil Methyl Ester (COME) and their diesel blends were comparatively analysed for fuel properties such as flash point, relative density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, distillation, sulphur, phosphorous, water content, cetane number and acid number . The methyl ester of yellow oleander was found to have properties closer to ASTM D 6751 fuel specifications than that of castor oil. It is further observed from the results that the biodiesel from yellow oleander and castor oil are environmentally friendly, such that after spillage, it will take about 28 days for them to have biodegradability of 82.4 and 87.3 for YOME and COME respectively. This is an advantage over petro-diesel which was found to have biodegradability of 25.29 in 28 days.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Abbreviations and Symbols

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       Statement of Research Problem

1.2       Justification for Research

1.3       Aims and Objectives

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Biodiesel as an Alternative to Petroleum Diesel

2.2       Performance Characteristics of Biodiesel

2.3       Biodiesel Storage Stability

2.4       Biodiesel Production

2.5       Optimization of Transesterification Process

2.5.1    Catalyst type and concentration

2.5.2    Effect of free fatty acid and moisture

2.5.3    Effect of reaction time and temperature

2.5.4    Mixing intensity

2.5.5    Molar ratio of alcohol to oil and type of alcohol

2.5.6    Effect of using organic solvents

2.6       Transesterification under different Conditions

2.7       Biodiesel Properties

2.7.1    Flash point

2.7.2    Viscosity

2.7.3   Cloud and pour point

2.7.4    Specific gravity

2.7.5    Calorific value

2.7.6    Sulphur

2.7.7    Cetane number

2.7.8    Carbon residue

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1       Samples

3.2       Preparation of Solutions

3.2.1    Preparation of 1% v/v phosphoric acid solution

3.2.2    Preparation of 1 M sodium hydroxide solution

3.2.3    Preparation of 1M sulphuric acid solution

3.2.4    Preparation of 0.1M potassium hydroxide solution

3.2.5    Preparation of 0.8 % w/w sodium hydroxide solution

3.2.6    Preparation of 10 % potassium iodide solution

3.2.7    Preparation of 0.1N sodium thiosulphate solution

3.2.8    Preparation of 0.1M hydrochloric acid solution

3.3       Sample Collection and preparation

3.4       Extraction

3.5       Refining Process

3.5.1    De-waxing

3.5.2    Degumming

3.5.3    Neutralizing

3.6       Determination of Acid Value of the Oils

3.7       Determination of Percentage Free Fatty Acid Content

3.8       Transesterification

3.8.1 Acid esterification (Step I)

3.8.2    Alkaline transesterification (Step II)

3.9 Test Methods for Physico-Chemical Properties

3.9.1    Kinematic viscosity

3.9.2    Density/API gravity measurement

3.9.3 Acid value

3.9.4 Iodine value

3.9.5 Peroxide value

3.9.6 Pour point

3.9.7 Cloud point

3.9.8 Sulphur content

3.9.9 Water content

3.9.10 Saponification value

3.9.11 Refractive index

3.9.12 Free and total glycerin

3.9.13 Flash point

3.9.14 Distillation characteristics

3.9.15  Cetane index

3.10 Biodegradation Study of the Biodiesels

3.11Fuel Blends Preparation

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       RESULTS

4.1       Result of Phytochemical Properties

4.2       Result of

4.2.1 Result of acid esterification 4.2.2 Result of transesterification (Step II)

4.3       Result of Characterization of Biodiesel Produced

4.4       Effect of Blending on fuel properties of the Biodiesels

4.5       Result of Distillation of Yellow Oleander and Castor oil methyl esters

4.6       Result of Biodegradability studies of Biodiesel

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

5.1       Percentage oil yield

5.2. Physiochemical Properties of Yellow oleander and Castor oil

5.3       Process Optimization

5.3.1 Acid esterification (Step I)

5.3.2 Transesterification (Step II)

5.4       Characterization of Biodiesel produced

5.5       Effect of Blending on Fuel properties of the Biodiesels

5.6       Distillation Characteristic of the Biodiesels produced

 

CHAPTER SIX, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Summary

6.2 Conclusio

6.3 Recommendations

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

 

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