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PERFORMANCE OF WEANER AND GROWER PIGS FED DIETS CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF SOYBEAN HULL

Animal Science Project Topics & Materials

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page-  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       i

Certification        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –       ii

Dedication           –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Acknowledgement        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Abstract     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        x

List of Tables       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xiv

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION-       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.1    Objectives –         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.2    Statement of Problem- –        –        –        –        –        –        5

1.3    Justification and Signification of the Study      –        –        6

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW –     –       –       –       –       –       –       7

  • Pig Production –        –        –        –        –        –        –         7

2.2 Nutrients for Pigs   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        9

2.3 Feeds used in the Feeding of Pigs      –        –        –        –        15

2.4 Uses of Soybean Hull in the Feeding of Feeds Pigs –     –        19

2.5 Effect of Feeding High Fibre Feed to Pigs    –        –        –        21

2.6 Fibre in Soybean Hull     –        –        –        –        –        –        23

2.7 Levels of graded fibre inclusion in the Diet of-     –        –        24

2.8    Blood Composition of Pig      –        –        –        –        –        27

2.9    Anti-Nutritive Factors –         –        –        –        –        –        32

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIAL AND METHODS-       –       –       –       –       –       39

  • Location and Duration of Study –        –        –        –        39
  • Materials – – –        –        –        –        –        –        –        39

3.2.1 Processing of Soybean Hull and Formulation

of Experimental Diets-   –        –        –        –        –        –        39

3.3   Management of Experimental Animals –   –        –        –        40

3.4    Haematological Evaluation – –        –        –        –        –        44

3.5    Carcass Evaluation      –        –        –        –        –        –        44

3.6   Parameters Measured and Calculated     –        –        –        45

3.7   Experimental Design –  –        –        –        –        –        –        46 3.8   Proximate and Statistical Analysis-      –        –        –        7

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS-        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       48

4.1    Experiment 1-     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        48                                               4.1.1 Effect of Graded Level of Soybean Hull on

Performance of Weaner Pigs-  –        –        –        –        –        48

4.1.2 Cost Implication of Feeding Graded Levels of

Soybean Hull to Weaner Pigs          –        –        –        –        51

4.1.3 Effect of Graded Level of Soybean Hull on Haematology of Weaner Pigs –        –        –        –        –        53

  • Experiment 2- –        –        –        –        –        –        –        54

4.2.1Effect of Graded Level of Soybean Hull on

Performance of Grower Pigs  –        –        –        –        –        54

  • Cost Implication of Feeding Graded Levels of

Soybean Hull to Grower Pigs          –        –        –        –        57

  • Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull on

Haemotology of Grower Pigs –        –        –        –        –        59

  • Effects of Dietary Treatment on conformational characteristics and Organ Weight of Grower Pigs-       –       61
  • Effects of Dietary Treatment on Carcass and

Relative and Organ Weights of Grower Pigs –     –        –       63

 

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION-   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       66                                                             5.1    Experiment 1      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        66

5.1.1 Proximate Composition of Soybean Hull-         –        –        66

5.1.2 Performance of Pigs –   –        –        –        –        –        –        67

5.1.3 Cost Implication –        –        –        –        –        –        69

5.1.4 Haematological Evaluation   –        –        –        –        –        70

5.2    Experiment 2     –        –       –       –       –       –       –       71

5.2.1 Performance of Pigs     –        –        –        –        –        –        71

5.2.2 Cost Implication –        –        –        –        –        –        –        74

5.2.3 Haematological Evaluation   –        –        –        –        –        75

5.2.4 Carcass and Organ Characteristics        –        –        –        78

CHAPTER SIX

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION     –        –        –        –        –        83

6.1 Summary–   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        83

6.2 Conclusion-  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        86

REFERENCES    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        88

APPENDICES      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        114

LIST OF TABLES

  1. Soybeans Hull Nutritional Content – –        –        –        20
  2. Normal Haematological Values of Pigs- –        –        –        32
  3. Major Effects of Anti-Nutritional Factors in Pigs- –        38
  4. Percentage Composition of Experimental Diets

(Experiment 1) –   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        41

  1. Percentage Composition of Experimental Diets

(Experiment 2)-  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        42

  1. Proximate Composition of soybean hull- – –        –        49
  2. Proximate Composition of Experimental Diets

(Experiment 1)-    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        49

  1. Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull

on Performance of Weaner Pigs–   –        –        –        –        50

  1. Cost Implication of Feeding Graded Levels of

Soybean Hull to Weaner Pigs-        –        –        –        –        52

  1. Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean

Hull on Haematology of Weaner Pigs-     –        –        –        54

  1. Proximate Composition of Experimental Diets

(Experiment 2)-  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        55

 

  1. Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull on

Performance of  Grower Pigs- –        –        –        –        56

  1. Cost Implication of Feeding Graded Levels of

Soybean Hull to Grower Pigs-         –        –        –        –        59

  1. Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull on

Haematology of Grower Pigs- –        –        –        –        60

  1. Effect of graded levels of soybean hull on conformational characteristics and organ weights of Grower pigs- –        63
  2. Effect of dietary treatments on carcass and relative organ weights of Grower pigs- –        –        –        –        –        65

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The scarcity of conventional feeds has hindered the growth of the livestock industry in Nigeria.

The food deficit problem is indeed more serious with protein supply when compared with the availability of calories. Shortage of protein, particularly those of animal origin is prevalent in most parts of Africa where it is estimated that on the average 10g of animal protein is consumed per day compared to a recommended daily intake of 35g (ILCA, 1980, FAO, 1997). According to Obioha (1992) and Ogini (2001), the level of consumption of meat and animal protein in Nigeria is estimated at about 8g per caput per day, about 20g less than the minimum requirement by the National Research Council of the United States of America. Therefore, there is the need, to increase the production of such domestic animals as pigs and poultry which are conventional sources of animal protein. Pig production in particular represents one of the fastest ways of increasing animal protein, since pigs grow at a faster rate and are highly more prolific than cattle, sheep and goats. In growth rate pig is only surpassed by broilers (Holness, 2005). Apart from their high rate of reproduction, pigs and poultry are characterized by the best efficiency of nutrient transformation into high quality animal protein (Smith, 2001; Holness, 2005).

Apart from the poultry industry, pig farming has the highest quick returns on investment. The high cost of the conventional feedstuff most especially the protein supplement, necessitated the quest for locally available alternatives that can substitute for the conventional feedstuffs economically by reducing feeding cost, thereby making the pig enterprise a more profitable one (EL-Sabben et al., 1970;Fontenot,1971). The alternative cheap and available feedstuff to be considered in this study is Soy bean hull. Soybean hulls referred to as soy hull, soybean mill-run or soybean flakes are by-products of soybean milling industry which do not attract competition between man and animals. Soybean hull is readily available when compared to other alternative sources of feed ingredient. Soybean hull has estimated feeding value of 74-80% of that of maize when included in moderate to high quantity in maize based diets (Esonu, 1998). It contains high level of potentially digestible fibre and can replace some or all grains in the diets of ruminants (Van Soest, 1985). Soybean hull contains 22.75% crude protein, 18.15% crude fibre, 14.60% ether extract, 8.0% ash and 20.90% nitrogen-free extract (Preston, 1989; Esonu et al., 1997; Esonu, 1998). However the utilization of soybean hull in the feeding of  monogastric animals  is limited by the presence of such anti-nutritional factors as trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase inhibitors, lipoxygenase, hemagglutinin, phytic acid and the toxin, soyin and must be heat-treated to destroy them (Ensminger et al., 1996; Enwere, 1998; Holness, 2005). Besides anti-nutritional factors, another limitation is its high fibre content. Pigs cannot fully utilize high fibre diets because they lack the digestive framework that can elaborately digest large amount of fibre. Although there is scarcity of information on the utilization of soybean hull, soybean hull has an acceptable proximate composition and occurs in relative abundance in all seasons, it should be exploited and evaluated for inclusion in livestock diets.

 

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