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POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND THE ELECTORAL PROCESS IN NIGERIA AN OVERVIEW OF THE 2007 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION

POLITICAL SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

ABSTRACT

One of the basic machineries of any representative democratic system is the electoral process. The experience of the western representative democracy in Nigeria can be traced from the Clifford and Macpherson constitutions for years respectively. This was elaborated at independence in the second republic and subsequent periods. Very ugly experience has characterized the activities with the electoral process that constitutes the burning questions in this work within these sparing periods Nigeria political history has been filled with malpractice fraud and therefore violence.

The election of the first republic displayed ethnicity in the second republic presidential election is been records its ugly tendencies but in refined form. This time, money and corruption led the race in electoral malpractices of the past and present on the political system. The study finally traces these political problems of the country to basic socio-institutional origins of the ethnicity class, material consciousness and others.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page –      –      –      –      –      –      –      i

Approval page-             –      –      –      –      –      ii

Dedication-     –      –      –      –      –      –      iii

Acknowledgment-   –      –      –      –      –      iv

Abstract- –      –      –      –      –      –      –      v

Table of contents    –      –      –      –      –      v

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction-    –      –      –      –      –      1

1.1 Backgrounds to the study-             –      –      2-4

1.2 statement of problem-    –      –      –      5

1.3 Objectives of study- –      –      –      –      6

1.4 research design-      –      –      –      –      7

1.5 Significance of study-             –      –      –      7

1.6 Scope and limitation of study –       –      –      8

1.7 limitation of study-  –      –      –      –      9

1.8 Definitions of terms –             –      –      –      9-10

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review –   –      –      –      –      11

2.1 Introductions – –      –      –      –      –      12

2.2 meaning of election- –      –      –      –      12-15

2.3 Purposes: function and problems

of election-     –      –      –      –      –      15-22

2.4 Political violence-     –      –      –      –      23-27

Reference –     –      –      –      –      –      28

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Research methodology –  –      –      –      29

3.1 introduction     –      –      –      –      –      29

3.2 research design-      –      –      –      –      30

3.3 Method of Data collection-      –      –      –      30

3.4 Sampling size – –      –      –      –      –      31

3.5 Data analysis techniques- –      –      –      32

3.6 validity and reliability of

Measuring instrument –  –      –      –      32

3.7 method of data analysis- –      –      33-34

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Presentation and analysis of data-   –      35

4.1 Data presentation –  –      –      –      –     35

4.2 analysis of data-      –      –      –      –      35

4.3 Research findings-    –      –      –      –      36

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Summary –      –      –      –      –      –      –      38

5.2 Conclusion-      –      –      –      –      –      39

5.3 Recommendations – –      –      –      –      40-41

References –   –      –      –      –      –      42

Appendix –      –      –      –      –      –      43

Questionnaire- –      –      –      –      –      44

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The Nigerian authorities and the independent National electoral commission (INEC) must prevent a repeat of the political violence that characterized the 2007 and 2003 elections. The political environment is however very tense. In the run up to the elections, the country has seen an increase in violence.

Several hundred people have been killed in politically motivated. Communal and sectarian violence across Nigeria in the past six months. In addition human rights defenders and journalist, who play a key role in monitoring Nigeria’s upcoming election in April, are facing increasing intimidation and harassment. Yet the Nigerian authorities have failed to bring suspected perpetrators to justice, or to take effective measures to prevent further human rights abuses.

 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The significance of election as an instrument for regime change has been recognized in most parts of the world. it’s importance in a democratic society has been acknowledged long in the history of man.

In Nigeria, the act of government by democratic means  is highly cherished by the populace. Election of courses can be basic tool of democratic development.

However, over the years the desire, choice and task of building a stable democracy in Nigeria has remained a mirage and part of this has unfulfilled dream as peaceful change of government ostensibly, through the electoral process.

It is a common pattern that elections in the third world countries were bedeviled by violence and malpractice(.s and for such reasons election conducts were not free and fair unlike the cases in advanced countries.

Election seems to highlight the most traits in the characters of Nigeria, particularly those of them who are active particularly in the electoral process. This national problem stems from the facts that Nigeria fits Thomas Hobbes description of man in his state of nature is basically self seeking and  self-centered.

This determines the greed in the Nigerian man hence cultural a flat has become part of the socio-political economic organizations.

All elections nationwide election so far conducted by Nigerians for Nigerians have virtually brought our country to the bank of civil way. This was true of the presidential election of 1979-1983, if we agreed that election is basic took of democratic development it’s application becomes over more vital in political transition such as we have in this countries since independence.

Infact, nothing would have been more gratifying in those transition exercises than to see this country match into a republic under a government duly installed by the people of Nigeria through a democratic election such as development would not only be cherished for building a stable democratic society in the country.

Election malpractices constitute a form of political corruption, electoral fraud is therefore politically destabilizing, economically wasteful and destructive to government development and improvement capacity. It destroys the legitimacy of government structure, heightens problems of national disintegration and upset ethnic balance for the individual listeners who take election as a means to exercise political power no matter how small it may be.

Election thus are at the heart of the structure of the functioning of modern democratic state and accompanies by irregularities and discrepancies summarily known as malpractice.

The Nigeria first, second and third republic blew the pipe of ethnic polities and political corruption. Events of the past here is seriously shaking the confidence of the Nigeria people in the method by which they choose their governing officials. It is very difficult to imagine how a country can function democratically if most of her citizens continue to believe that the electoral system is fraudulent.

 

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