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STAFF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN PENTECOSTAL SEMINARIES IN SOUTH-EAST, NIGERIA

Vocational Technical Education Project Topics & Materials

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                              i

Approval Page                                                                                                                   ii

Certification                                                                                                                       iii

Dedication                                                                                                                          iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                            v

Table of Contents                                                                                                              vi

List of Tables                                                                                                                       x

List of Appendices                                                                                                    xii

List of Figures                                                                                                                  xiii

Abstract                                                                                                                              xiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                              1

Background of the Study                                                                                                   1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                                 15

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                        17

Significance of the Study                                                                                                 18

Scope of the Study                                                                                                            22

Research Questions                                                                                                          22

Hypotheses                                                                                                                        23

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE                                           24

  • Conceptual Framework                    25
  • Conceptual Model                                                                                      26
  • Concept of Seminaries 30
  • Concept of Pentecostal Seminaries 33
  • Concept of Management Practices 36
  • Concept of Staff Management                                   37
  • Rationale of Staff Management of Seminaries  42
  • Objectives of Staff Management                                45
  • Elements of Staff Management in Pentecostal Seminaries:  48
  • Staff Recruitment in Seminaries                                                         48
  • Staff Training and Development in Seminaries                 50
  • Staff Remuneration in Seminaries 53
  • Staff Motivation in Seminaries                                                            60
  • Staff Supervision in Seminaries                                             64
  • Staff Discipline in Seminaries 68
  • Staff Performance Appraisal in Seminaries                                       73

–   Historical Background of Staff Management in Pentecostal

Seminaries in Nigeria                                                                                        77

–   Constraints to Staff Management of Pentecostal Seminaries                      82

  • Theoretical Framework 92
  • Expectancy Theory                   93
  • Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory                                                         96
  • Human Resource Management (HRM) System Theory      97
  • Theoretical Model for Staff Management Practices                             99
  • Review of Empirical Studies 105
  • Strategies for Effective Staff Personnel Administration 105
  • Survey of Staff Personnel Services                            106
  • Strategies for Improving Human Resources Management for Quality

Education                                                                                                             107

  • University Career Administrators’ Perception of the Influence of

Performance Appraisal Strategies on Staff Work Performance                   108

  • Staff Training and Development in Small Scale Organizations 109

Strategies for Enhancing Teachers’ Commitment to the Teaching

Profession                                                                                                         110

  • Prospects of Staff Personnel Administration                  111
  • Job Satisfaction and Productivity 112
  • Summary of Literature Reviewed     113

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                             115

Design of the Study                                                                                               115

Area of the Study                                                                                                          115

Population of the Study                                                                                               116

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                        117

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                   117

Validation of the Instrument                                                                                        118

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                118

Method of Data Collection                                                                                  119

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                     119

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS                                                                           121

Research Question One                                     121

Research Question Two                                                                                        123

Research Question Three                                                                                      127

Research Question Four                                                                                        130

Research Question Five                                                                                        133

Research Question Six                                                                                          136

Research Question Seven                                                                                      139

Hypothesis One                                                                                                     142

Hypothesis Two                                                                                                     143

Hypothesis Three                                                                                                   144

Hypothesis Four                                                                                                     145

Hypothesis Five                                                                                                     145

Summary of Findings                                                                                          146

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY                   149

Result One: The Procedures for Staff Recruitment in Pentecostal Seminaries    149

Result Two: The Approaches Adopted by Pentecostal Seminaries to Encourage

Staff Development                                                                           150

Result Three: The Means used by Pentecostal Seminaries to Enhance Staff

Remuneration                                                                                 150

Result Four: Motivation of Staff in Pentecostal Seminaries                                 151

Result Five: Approaches to staff Supervision in Pentecostal Seminaries             152

Result Six:   Factors Militating against Staff Management in Pentecostal

Seminaries                                                                                        153

Result Seven: Measures that can be used in Improving Staff Management in

Pentecostal Seminaries                                                                   154

Conclusions                                                                                                           156

Educational Implications of the Study                                                                  157

Recommendations                                                                                                 159

Limitations of the Study                                                                                        161

Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                             161

Summary of the Study                                                                                           162

REFERENCES                                                                                                    164

APPENDICES                                                                                                      172

Appendix I:   Letter of Introduction to the Respondents                                        172

Appendix II:  Respondents’ Personal Bio–Data                                                     173

Appendix III: Questionnaire:  Staff  Management practices in Pentecostal

Seminaries Questionnaire (SMPPSQ)                                              174

Appendix IV:   Population of Governing Council Members (GCM), Academic

Staff (AS) and Non-academic Staff (NAS) in the

Pentecostal Seminaries in the South-East, Nigeria.                      177

Appendix V:    Reliability Coefficient Analysis                                                     180

Appendix VI:   Means Analysis on Staff Management Practices in

   Pentecostal Seminaries in South-East, Nigeria                                181

Appendix VII: The Five States in the South-Eastern zone of Nigeria                 182

Appendix VIII: Interview Schedule for Staff of Pentecostal Seminaries                183

in South-East, Nigeria                                                                    

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:      Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Governing Council

Members, Academic and Non-academic Staff of the Pentecostal

Seminaries on the Procedures Used in Staff Recruitment.                                   121

Table 2:      Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Governing Council

Members, Academic and Non-academic Staff of the Pentecostal

Seminaries on Encouragement of Staff Development.                              124

Table 3:      Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Governing Council

Members, Academic and Non-academic Staff of the Pentecostal

Seminaries on the Used to Staff Remuneration.                                         128

Table 4:         Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Governing Council

Members, Academic and Non-academic Staff of the Pentecostal

Seminaries on Staff Motivation.                                                                   131

Table 5:         Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Governing Council

Members, Academic and Non-academic Staff of the Pentecostal

Seminaries on Staff Supervision.                                                                 134

Table 6:         Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Governing Council

Members, Academic and Non-academic Staff of the Pentecostal

Seminaries on the Factors that Militate Against Staff Management.      137

Table 7:         Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Governing Council

Members, Academic and Non-academic Staff of the Pentecostal

Seminaries on the Measures Used in Improving Staff Management.      140

Table 8:      Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Difference Between

the Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Governing Council

Members, Academic and Non-academic Staff of the Pentecostal

Seminaries on the Procedures Used in Staff Recruitment.                                   143

Table 9:      Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Difference Between

the Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Governing

Council Members, Academic and Non-academic Staff of the

Pentecostal Seminaries on the Approaches Adopted for Staff

Development.                                                                                                  143

Table 10:    Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Difference Between

the Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Governing Council

Members, Academic and Non-academic Staff of the Pentecostal

Seminaries on Staff Remuneration.                                                              144

Table 11:    Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Difference Between

the Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Governing

Council Members, Academic and Non-academic Staff of the

Pentecostal Seminaries on Staff Motivation.                                              145

Table 12:    Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of the Difference Between

the Mean Ratings and Standard Deviation of Governing

Council Members, Academic and Non-academic Staff of the

Pentecostal Seminaries on the Approaches Used in the

Supervision of Staff.                                                                                       146

LIST OF APPENDICES

  1. Letter of Introduction to the Respondents                                                           172
  2. Respondents’ Personal Bio-Data 173
  • Questionnaire: Staff Management Practices in Pentecostal

Seminaries Questionnaire (SMPPSQ)                                                                   174

  1. Population of Governing Council Members (GCM), Academic Staff (AS)

and Non-academic Staff (NAS) in 36 Pentecostal Seminaries in the

South-East Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria                                                                        177

  1. Reliability Coefficient Analysis                                                                      180
  2. Means Analysis on Staff Management Practices in Pentecostal

Seminaries in    South-East, Nigeria                                                                      181

  • The five states in the South-Eastern Zone of Nigeria: Abia,

Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu and Imo                                                                          182

  • Interview Schedule for Staff of Pentecostal Seminaries in South-East,

Nigeria                                                                                                                       183

List of Figures

Figure 1.  Conceptual Model for Staff Management Practices                                     26

Figure 2. The Basic Motivation Model                                                                 63

Figure 3. Theoretical Model for Staff Management Practices                                                  99

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study was to examine staff management practices in Pentecostal seminaries in South-East, Nigeria comprising of Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi Enugu and Imo States. The study specifically sought to examine staff management practices with regard to: staff recruitment procedures; staff development; staff remuneration; staff motivation; staff supervision; factors militating against staff management and measures used in improving staff management. Based on the purposes of the study, seven research questions and five null hypotheses were used. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population consisted of 601, made up of 230 governing council members, 189 academic staff and 182 non-academic staff of the Pentecostal Seminaries. The entire population was used for the study. Two instruments: questionnaire and interview schedule were used. An instrument titled: Staff Management Practices of Pentecostal Seminaries Questionnaire (SMPPSQ) was used to collect data from the respondents. The interview schedule titled: Interview Schedule for Governing Council Members, Rectors/Provosts and Academic Staff in Pentecostal Seminaries (SGCMRPASPS) was used to gather information. The interviews were conducted with the aid of a mobile phone, a camera and voice recorder. The Cronbach Alpha Method was used to test the reliability of the instrument. The internal consistency reliability co-efficient values yielded 0.66, 0.77, 0.74, 0.54, 0.80, 0.93 and 0.95 for clusters A, B, C, D, E, F and G respectively and overall reliability figure of 0.77.  The data collected were analyzed using inferential statistics while mean scores and standard deviations were used to answer the research questions.  Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings showed too that procedures to staff recruitment were practiced at a low degree in Pentecostal Seminaries in South-East Nigeria. The degree (level) of encouragement of staff development of Pentecostal Seminaries authorities is moderate. Findings also showed that staff remuneration in Pentecostal Seminaries is moderate. Staff motivation is to a great extent not in line with traditional management practices. Findings showed too that the approaches to staff supervision were efficient and effective compared to what is obtainable in educational management practices. Findings also showed that the factors militating against staff management of Seminaries are high. Findings showed too that the measures used in improving staff management in Pentecostal seminaries in South-East, Nigeria, are high. Based on the findings, it was recommended that recruitment of staff should be conducted based on merit, devoid of favouritism, ethnicity and preferential treatment. Also, it was recommended that administrators (rectors/provosts) of Pentecostal Seminaries should adopt and adapt some measures for regular staff development programme, and that seminary authorities should harmonize the salary structure (remuneration/salaries and wages) of staff of Pentecostal seminaries to be in line with that of the government.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

The importance of staff management is increasingly being realized in the educational system. This realization is apparently as a result of increasing complexity of the tasks which administrators perform. There are perceived problems in the areas of recruitment, training and development, remuneration, motivation, supervision, discipline and performance appraisal of their staff. Pentecostal institutions are not insulated from such problems. While staff is a great asset to every educational institution, it becomes problematic if not properly managed. Hence the import of this study is to examine staff management practices in Pentecostal Seminaries in South-East, Nigeria.

Management has been variously defined.  Obi (2003) is of the view that the word ‘manage’ seems to have come into English usage directly from Italian word “managerial”, meaning to “handle”. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the words manage and manager over appeared in usage, and today’s meaning of the word manage is coloured by these early variations. Management was originally a noun used to indicate the process for managing, training or directing. It was first applied to sports, to housekeeping and later to government and business organizations and from there to education.  To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control (Obi, 2005). In Pentecostal Seminaries, each rector/provost, supervisor, director, executive among others, is a manager in the area of his responsibility. Each of them co-ordinates and directs the efforts of others in a major part of the management job in the institution. Management is a process of creating, directing, maintaining and operating purposeful educational programmes through coordinated, cooperative human efforts. According to Ogunu (2000:1), “management is the effective organization and utilization of the human and material resources in a particular system for the achievement of identified objectives.” It is the effective handling of all school activities that go on within the educational system, which require judicious use of human and material resources towards the realization of objectives. Management has also been defined as “a social process which is designed to ensure the cooperation, participation, intervention and involvement of others in the effective achievement of a given or predetermined objective” (UNESCO, 1999). Nwadiani (1998), on his part, defined management as human and material resources and programmes available for education and carefully using them systematically for the achievement of educational objectives. In other words, management is the art, or science, of achieving goals through people. Since managers also supervise, it therefore implies that management means looking over, that is, ensuring that people do what they are supposed to do. Broadly then, management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims of an institution.

Therefore, management entails the acquisition of managerial competence, and effectiveness in ost managers have not acquired. Management, according to Cole (2002), refers primarily to the activities of specialist staff responsible for implementing the key objectives of the institution in respect to its use of people (employees). Generally, staff management is concerned with the issues of recruitment, welfare, training, promotion, motivation, transfer and discipline of staff.

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