Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Approval Page                                                                                                                                    ii

Certification                                                                                                                            iii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                v

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   vi

List of Tables                                                                                                                          viii

Abstract                                                                                                                                  ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                                1

Background of the Study                                                                                           1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                           11

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                  11

Significance of the Study                                                                                           12

Research Questions                                                                                                     13

Hypotheses                                                                                                                 14

Delimitation of the Study                                                                                           14

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                      15

Conceptual Framework                                                                                           15

  • Concept of ICT 15
  • Concept of Initiatives 24
  • Teacher Initiatives in Higher Education 27
  • Teaching and Learning in Nigerian Higher Education 35
  • Prospects of ICT in Teacher Education 38


Theoretical Framework                                                                                            39

  • Constructivism Learning Theory 39
  • Downes Siemens Connectivism Learning Theory 41
  • Technology Acceptance Model Theory 42


Review of Related Empirical Studies                                                                                  43

Summary of Literature Reviewed                                                                                       46

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                                         48

Design of the Study                                                                                                    48

Area of the Study                                                                                                       48

Population of the Study                                                                                              49

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                                49

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                   49

Validation of the Instrument                                                                                      50

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                       50

Method of Data Collection                                                                                         51

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           51


Research Question 1

Research Question 2

Research Question 3

Research Question 4

Test of Hypotheses

Findings of the Study

Discussion of Findings


Re-statement of the Problem

Summary of Procedures Used

Summary of Findings

Implications of the Study



Suggestions for Further Studies

REFERENCES                                                                                                                    79


Appendix A: Population Distribution of Respondents                                              88

Appendix B: Letter of Introduction for Validation                                                   89

Appendix C: Questionnaire                                                                                        90

Appendix D: Letter to Validates                                                                                95


Tables                                                                                                                               Pages

  1. Mean ratings of the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT infrastructure

in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.                        52


  1. Mean ratings of the teacher initiatives for training teachers in the

utilization of ICT in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in

Delta State.                                                                                                           53

  1. Mean ratings of the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT in instructional

deliveryin teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.          54

  1. Mean ratings of the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT instructional as

materials in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.        55

Analysis of Variance on teacher initiatives in the use of ICT infrastructure

int eaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.                        56

  1. Analysis of Variance on teacher initiatives for training teachers in the

utilization of ICT in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in

Delta State.                                                                                                           57

  1. Analysis of Variance on teacher initiatives in the use of ICT in instructional

delivery in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.         58

  1. Analysis of Variance on teacher initiatives in the use of ICT as instructional

materials in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.        59 


The major purpose of this study was to determine the teacher initiatives for utilizing ICTs in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State. Four research questions were answered and four null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population for the study consisted of 2035 made up of 610, 723 and 702 teaching staff from Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, College of Education, Agbor and College of Education, Warri respectively, the three Colleges of Education in Delta State. The sample size for the study was 203, which represents 10% of the entire population and was determined through proportionate sampling technique. Descriptive survey design was used to generate data for the study. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit information for the study. The instrument was face validated by three research experts, two from the faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukkaand one from Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba. The questionnaire was pilot tested with a sample of 30 teaching staff from two Colleges of Education in Enugu State. Cronbach Alpha reliability test was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and this yielded a reliability coefficient of .82. Data were analysed using mean statistics for the research questions and ANOVA was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Based on the findings, it was revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of teaching staff from FCE(T), Asaba, COE, Agbor and COE, Warri on the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT infrastructure in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State. It was concluded that for teachers in the colleges of education in Delta State to be able to effectively utilize information and communication technology (ICT), they would have to create initiatives which would develop their teaching skills and create the enabling environment for an effective teaching and learning process to take place. It was recommended thatteachers and school administrators should put in much effort in creating initiatives by means of sponsorship and retraining programs, seminars and conferences that will help the teachers utilize ICTs which will facilitate effective teaching and   learning.



Background of the Study

The development of a nation is measured by the quality of her education. Education holds the key to the economic, political, sociological and human resources development and well-being of any society (Oriafo, 2002). Idogho (2002) asserted that the objective of education is to prepare students to view their own society with some detachment; to compare it with other societies; to discover discrepancies and to acquire the will as well as the political and technological skills needed to work for change. Education prepares the individual for challenges of life. Consequently, Gujjar, Khan, Baig, Ramzan and Saifi (2010) opined that education does not only deliver information, but for developing complete personality of a child. In Nigeria, there are three levels of education: primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The tertiary level, otherwise known as higher education, is identified as the process that helps develop the whole man physically, mentally, morally and technologically, to enable him/her function effectively in any environment in which they find themselves so that they may become more productive, self-fulfilling and attain self-actualization (Aluede, 2004). Hence, the importance of higher education is to provide quality education for her products so that they can assume leadership positions in their immediate and external communities (FGN, 2004).

Colleges of Education are one of the higher education teacher training programs whose mandate it is to produce quality teachers for the Basic Education sub-sector. It equally prepares students to be productive members of the society (Jegede&Owolabi, 2003). In developed countries, Colleges of education are seen as the gateway to providing not only an educated citizenry but also a capable workforce. According to Jegede and Owolabi (2003), Colleges of Education are now being recognized as the cornerstone of the educational system in the 21st century. It therefore means that quality College of Education program is indispensable in creating a bright future for individuals and nations alike. Jacob and Tomoko (2001) also stated that Colleges of Education are crucial for economic growth. Colleges of Education therefore provides countries with the skills and knowledge needed for economic growth, including furthering learning and training of professionals such as technicians, scientists and entrepreneurs. Colleges of Education can also be decisive in fostering positive social and civic values and yields considerable private returns, offering young people the chance to acquire skills that were unlikely to be developed in the primary and secondary schools. This in turn enables youth to develop job-oriented skills, participate fully in the society, take control of their own lives and continue learning.In the same view, Akarachu (2010) stated that, educational system is gradually becoming a system of technology, especially in the present information driven economy. Based on the advances in science and technology which continues to revolutionize the global world, Federal Ministry of Education introduced the study of Computer and also Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at all levels of education in Nigeria (FGN, 2004).

Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is an extended term for Information Technology (IT). In whatever way it is used, they mean the same thing.  Generally, the term ICT has no universal definition, as the concepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis (Ajibade, 2006). According to Okorie (2002), ICT encompassesinfrastructure that store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form, e.g. personal computers, digital television, email, robots among others. It could also be refered to any arrangement that is capable of capturing, storing, retrieving, manipulating, transmitting or receiving of information or data through the use of television sets, bulletin boards, radio, record players, disc players, still camera, video camera projectors, computers, interactive white board, internet and the internet resources among others (Blaise, 2010). Mejiuni and Obilade (2006) defined ICT as the electronic and non-electronic technologies and infrastructure systems used to create, store, manipulate, retrieve, and communicate or disseminate information. ICTs are computer based tools such as computer hardware and software, the network, and other digital devices like video, audio, camera, and so on, used by people to work with information and communication processing needs of an organization to convert information (text, sound, motion, etc.) into digital form (Moursund&Bielefeldt, 2002). ICT is therefore seen as all the electronic and non-electronic infrastructure or technologies which include, cd plates, recorders, projectors, still cameras, video cameras, computer systems, interactive white boards, printers, scanners, bulletin boards, among others, which may be utilized by the teacher for teaching and learning, to facilitate understanding among students.

ICT is often perceived as a catalyst for change in teaching styles and change in learning approaches and in access to information (Watson, 2005).ICT capability is fundamental to participation and engagement in modern information society. ICT can be used to find, develop, analyze and present information, as well as to model situations and solve problems. ICT enables rapid access to ideas and experiences from a wide range of people, communities and cultures, and allows pupils to collaborate and exchange information on a wide scale (Crown, 2010). Education is the first and best key area for ICT applications. ICTs can help by providing alternative possibilities for education (Casal, 2007). The purpose of ICT in education is generally to familiarize students with the use and workings of computers, and related social and ethical issues. ICT has also enabled learning through multiple intelligence as ICT has introduced learning through simulation games; this enables active learning through all senses (Gateway, 2010). Use of different ICTs has become inevitable for students in learning. By using modern ICTs, students can retrieve their required informationwithin a short time. They can access and disseminate electronic information like e-books, e-journals and can improve their learning by using different modern ICTs in form of wireless networks, internet, search engines, databases, websites and web 2.0 technologies.Educators at the teaching profession (especially at the tertiary level) need to be able to exploit the potentials of ICT to meet the teaching objectives. Educators at the College of Education level must not only equip themselves but equip trainees to evaluate examples of ICT, both during their training andin their future employment; to make sound judgement about when, when not and how to use ICT. The pervasiveness of ICT has brought about rapid changes in technology, social, political and global economic transformation. However, the field of education has not been unaffected by the penetrating influence of Information and Communication Technology (Hossein, 2008). The fact that ICT has impacted on the quality of teaching, learning and research in teacher education world over cannot be over-emphasised. ICT has, therefore, provided opportunities for students and teachers to communicate with one another more effectively during formal and informal teaching and learning processes (Yusuf, 2005). Although it is recognized that resources will differ from school to school, opportunities to create effective learning and teaching environments make it necessary for teachers to not only talk about ICT in the classroom but also to model best practice or bring in their initiative by demonstrating different ways in which technology can enhance the delivery of ICT.