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THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ECONOMY

ACCOUNTING PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ECONOMY (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA AGRICULTURAL AND CO-OPERATIVES BANKS (NACB) OGUI ENUGU)

ABSTRACT
The object of this research work reported in this texts, aimed at finding out in details the role of financial institution in the development of an economy with particular reference to Nigerian Agricultural and Cooperatives Bank (NACB) Ogui Enugu, Enugu state. Financial institution refers to those organizations that are largely established either by the government or individual’s money and credit in circulation. Financial institutions can be classified into:

Banking type financial institutions and
Non Banking type financial institutions
The sources of data used were both primary and secondary source of data. The primary sources of data were interviews grants to me while the secondary sources were obtained from other related literature. The analysis and discussion of result of the study is in relation to the role of financial institutions in the development of an economy. The subject for the study consisted of sixty four (64) workers of NACB. Research instrument used were questionnaire distribution. From the researchers findings, it will be seen that one thing to be very clear is that the domestic mobilization of financial resources is essential for capital formation and accelerated growth and that financial institutions offer an efficient institutional mechanism through which resources can be mobilized and directed from essential used to more productive investment. The problems of the financial institutions are the financial institutions especially the commercial bank and insurance companies should continue in their expansion network and even as many part of the country as possible and be more aggressive for deposit.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Financial institution refers to these organizations that are legally established either by the government or individuals to directly or indirectly control and manage the volume of money and credits in circulation. The legality of the establishment of these organizations distinguishes them from other organization that control money in this category.
Even though they lend money to people, they are not legally authorized to perform, therefore, any contract entered into with these people is void and a nullity and hence, cannot be enforced at the court of law.
The financial Institution can be classified into:

Banking type financial institutions and
Non-Banking type financial institutions.
BANKING TYPE FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
These institutions control and manage the volume of money in circulation directly; they are responsible for the printing, minting and creation of credit of money. Banking type financial institution can also be called the deposit type financial institutions. Deposit in the sense that they accept money deposit from their customers, or other financial intermediaries. By this, the banking type financial institution intermediate between the saving surplus counts and the saving deficit units thereby increasing the volume of money in circulation through credit creation.

TYPES OF BANKING TYPE FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

Central bank
Commercial banks
Merchant banks
Development banks
People’s banks
Community banks etc.
NON-BANKING TYPE FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
As the name suggests, non-banking financial institution do not control money supply directly as the banking types do. However, the non-banking institution still control money supply, although indirectly. Examples of institutions under this category include Insurance companies, co-operative Societies, building Societies, provident funds, etc.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research work entitled “The role of financial Institution in the development of an economy, a case study of Nigerian Agricultural and Co-operative bank, Ogui, Enugu.
The major problems of financial institution are breach of contract, negligence, conversion and deformation. Moreover, the relationship between the financial institution and his customer does not continue indefinitely. The accuracy of any of the following of any of the following wants can bring the relationship to an end.

Death of the customer
Banking or insolvency of the customer
Mental incapacitation
Liquidation and
Closing of account
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of any study undertaking are to contribute to the development and growth of the case study. This research work intends to investigate critically the role of financial institutions in the development of an economy using Nigeria Agricultural and co-operative Banks (NACB) as a case study.
The purpose includes:

To assess the financial institution impact on the economic Growth and development in Nigeria.
To examine the ownership distribution of the institution in the system, the structure of the system and regulatory framework within which the institutions operation.
To ascertain how much the purpose of the financial institution have been able to achieve their standing relation with the Nigerian public and the central bank of Nigerian (CBN).
To know the relationship between the public and the financial institution and
To ascertain the legal risks arising out of the financial institution, customer relationship.
The research will also look into the future of the financial system, its responsibilities and the role in the Nigerian economy and therefore, suggest likely ways of solving the problem.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Do financial Institutions play any role in the development of an economy?
Does non-banking type financial institution control money supply directly as the banki8ng type do?
Do the financial institution and his customers’ relationship continue indefinitely?
Does the overall objective of establishment of the institution tend towards meeting the political and economic needs of the country?
These questions when answered will show how well financial institutions play a role in these developments of an economy in the Nigerian Agricultural and Co-operative Bank (NACB).

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This work, the role of financial institution in the development of an economy is indispensable and equally significance because this will not only enhance the economy growth of the country but will also improve the standard of living of the people as it directly or indirectly creates employment for the teaming population of the many unemployment in the nation. It is also worth studying in the sense that it is unique in position as being solely responsible in determining and launching the nation into a good economy.
The study is equally important to the general public since this research review the role of financial institution in meeting their primary purposes as well as other objectives with a view to improving the economic standard in Nigeria.
It also looked into the primary role of these institutions which includes provision of equity capital and funds by ways of granting loans to individuals, institutional or organization for medium and long term investment. in industry and commence as such rate and upon such terms as may determined by the board in accordance with the policy directed by the federal executive council.
These research works also intended to provide a base for further researchers in the area of financial institutions.
Finally, this topic will hopeful be of great important to any developing country hoping to established financial institution to help speed up her economic development since it has highlighted the role and functions such institution plays in economic development.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In the process of conducting this research topic, the researcher examination will only be concentrated on a case study of Nigerian Agriculture and Cooperative Banks (NACB)
This research work will cover financial institutions. The researcher intended as much as possible to conduct an adequate research but could not achieved due to some constraints sequel to the developing and high demand of adequate finance, this is every indication that thee are constraint to the validity of the conclusion reached.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited by certain constraint required to write off the cost incurred in marketing this project ass success, such limitation are as follows:

Lack of fund required to cover the cost of transportation, materials for working and typing the project and binding of the project.
Time factor: The time allocated for the completion of the study is too short for more objectives of the result. As extension of time given should be encouraged. I am suggesting that the project topic should be approved for the writer, starting from the first semester of thee academic session.
Co-operation from the staff of the company: The researcher, if not for the help of friends and well wishers, getting information for the research from the company and libraries, could have been so difficult. The management and staff thought that the researcher was about to carrying out espionage on the company to other competitors who are located at the same area? It took the research so much time to convince the management that the research is strictly for academic purpose.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms re defined in these contexts, which are used in the research work.
Financial institution: These refer to this organization that are legally established either by the government or individuals to directly or indirectly control and manage the volume of money and credit in circulation.
Banking type financial: these institution control and mange the volume of money in circulation directly.
Non- banking type financial institution: These institutions refers in those that do not control money supply directly as the banking type do.
Economy: In this research economy refers to the control and management of the money, goods and other resources of the Nigeria societies with regards to the improvement of the standard of living of the people.
Role: These are all part played and exhibited by financial institution in the development of Nigeria economy.
Population: This can be defined as the number of element in a research study that the research has access for the purpose of gathering data.
Monetary policy: This is a measure which deals with the discretion control of money supply by the monetary authority with a view to achieve stated economy objective designed to influence the cost and availability of credit.

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