Title page i
Approval Page ii
Certification Page iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Abstract vi
Background of the study 1
Statement of the problem 7
Significant of the study 8
Scope of the Study 11
Purpose of the study 11
Research questions 12
Research hypothesis 12
Conceptual framework 13
Theoretical framework 31
Empirical study 36
Summary of literature review 41
Research design 44
Area of the study 45
Population of the study 45
Sample and sample technique 45
Instrument for data collection 46
Validation of Instruments 47
Reliability of Instrument 47
Control on extraneous variable 47
Method of data collection 48
Method of Data Analysis 49
Research question 50
Hypothesis analysis 51
Analysis 52
Discussion of result 53
Conclusion 55
Implication of the study 56
Recommendation 56
Educational Implication of the findings 57
Limitations of the Study 56
Suggestion for further research 58
Summary 59
Materials are classified according to many different criteria inclBilliri L.G.A, Gombe Stateng their physical and chemical characteristics as well as their intended applications whether it is thermal, optical, electrical, magnetic, or combined materials can be anything consisting of pure or impure substance, a singular composite or a complex mix, living or non-living matter, whether natural or man-made, either concrete or abstract ideas. . Ibeneme (2000) defined teaching aids as those materials used for practical and demonstration in the class situation by students and teachers.
Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers’ efficiency and improve students’ performance. They make learning more interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. They also enable both the teachers and students to participate actively and effectively in lesson sessions. They give room for acquisition of skills and knowledge and development of self- confidence and self- actualization. They are print and non-print items that impact information to students in the educational process. Instructional materials include items such as: kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recording videos etc. Fadeiye (2005) saw instructional materials as visual and aBilliri L.G.A, Gombe Stateo-visual aids, concrete or non-concrete, used by teachers to improve the quality of teaching and learning activities in Social StBilliri L.G.A, Gombe Statees. Agina-Obu (2005) submitted that instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organs during teaching and learning. Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching and learning process. It enhances the memory level of the students. At this time that education has spread wide and entirely, oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy. Therefore the teacher has to use instructional materials to make teaching and learning process interesting (NIC hulls, 2003; Raw 2006) .The Board is also responsible for the content of all instructional materials used in a classroom, whether adopted and purchased from the state-adopted instructional materials list, adopted and purchased through the District instructional materials program or otherwise purchased or made available in the classroom.
Orji (2000) asserts that teaching aid is “the guidance of learning activities” that “a teacher uses to motivate and arouse student’s desire to learn” From the fore-going statement, it can be agreed that for effective learning to take place, a student need to be properly guided by the teacher by way of employing various method and means through which his teaching could be meaningful.
Instructional materials and resources shall be provided in a variety of formats that are appropriate, timely, and essential to the attainment of specified educational objectives and are free of bias, stereotypes, distortions, and prejBilliri L.G.A, Gombe Stateces. These items may be provided in a variety of forms, bound, unbound, kit, or package form and may consist of hard backed or soft backed textbooks, electronic content, consumables, learning laboratories, manipulative, electronic media, and computer courseware or software. Instructional materials, inclBilliri L.G.A, Gombe Stateng textbooks, educational media (library media print, nonpoint, and electronic resources), computer software, digital content, videotapes used by teachers to aid explanations and make learning of subject matter understandable to students during teaching learning process. The Board must either (1) adopt instructional materials selected from the state-approved materials according to the state adoption cycles, (2) adopt instructional materials pursuant to a Board instructional materials review program prescribed by this policy, or (3) a combination of both.
Isola (2010) also described instructional materials as objects or devices that assist the teachers to present their lessons logically and sequentially to the learners. Obanya (2004) asserted that several stBilliri L.G.A, Gombe Statees carried out in some areas in Nigeria indicated that the results of Senior School Certificate Examinations was completely bad in nearly all subjects offered by the students. He stressed further that only about 10% of candidates ‘meaningfully passed’ the examination. Abdu-Raheem (2011) asserted that non availability and inadequacy of instructional materials are major causes of ineffectiveness of the school system and poor performance of students in schools. Ahmed (2003) confirmed that in most secondary schools in Nigeria, teaching and learning take place under a most un-conducive environment without access to essential materials. Eniayewu (2005) posited that it is very important to use instructional aids for instructional delivery to make students acquire more knowledge and to promote academic standard.
The use of instructional materials can enhance the learning achievement. Cronbach (2009) states the important elements of behaviour that provides the base for learning theory situation which consists of all the objects, persons and symbols in the learning environment. Experience in situation prepares a person to respond to similar situation in future. Use of instructional materials can appeal to the individual attention by creating interest goal that will help the learner achieve direct effort. Teacher’s problem of motivation is essentially one of arranging situation with instructional materials in which the learner will see goals he want to attain. Brown etal (2005) summarized the role of teaching aids as follows:
•It promotes meaningful communication and effective learning.
•They ensure better retention, thus making learning more permanent.
•They help to overcome the limited classroom by making the inaccessible accessible.
•They provide a common experience upon which late learning can be developed. •They stimulate and motivate students to learn.
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences
•They encourage participation especially if students are allowed to manipulate materials used. Osuala (2010) in his own contribution said it does not only help to motivate and develop interest on the part of the student, but also help to bring about an enhance respect for teachers knowledge of the subject. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or both to the sense organs during teaching (Aginna-Obu 2000).The nature of the learning and the wide range of student’s abilities in the average classroom necessitate a high degree of teachers and experience in the method of presenting the subject matter. This has been truncated with the unavailability of instructional materials in schools. However, a common goal a teacher carries wherever he is, to make lesson presentation vitally fresh, stimulating and testing for their students. This will help the teacher to individualize the learning method as well as the content and also working according to the student’s need. This goal can be reached most effectively through the use of instructional materials. The need to emphasis on the use and importance
of instructional materials in any learning and teaching environment cannot be underestimated. For any learning to take place, the teacher has to make use of these materials that would enable him to teach effectively.
Equipment and other instructional materials to the some extent determine the method the teacher uses in teaching physics. The method adopted could be demonstration, experimental, discussion, inquiry-based method, explanation etc. It is generally agreed by both teachers and school administrators that apart from the most boards and textbooks which are often available for the teacher to use, there are other materials that aid or are capable of complementing the teacher’s effort in teaching/learning process. Those materials are commonly called “instructional materials. One of the reasons why students in our secondary schools sometime find it difficult to comprehend immediately what is being taught by the teacher is the non availability of instructional materials that can easily convey the message of the lesson to the learners. In addition, Ajayi and Ayodele (2001) stressed the importance of availability of instructional materials to achieving effectiveness in educational delivery and supervision in the school system. Ogbondah (2008) alerted on the gross inadequacy and under utilization of instructional materials necessary to compensate for the inadequacies of sense organs and to reinforce the capacity of dominant organs. He noted that school teachers should try their possible best in the provision of locally made materials in substitution for the standard ones to promote their lessons.
Abdu-Raheem (2014) encouraged teachers to improvise teaching aids because they are in great measure enhance learners’ full participation in the lesson, gives room for inquiry, problem-solving, discussion and clarification of issues and ideas among students and the teacher.
He suggested the needs for teachers to find necessary materials for instruction to supplement what textbooks provide in order to broaden concepts and arouse students ‘interests in the subject, attested that effective teaching and learning requires a teacher to teach the students with instructional materials and use practical activities to make learning more vivid, logical, realistic and pragmatic. Esu, Enukoha and Umoren (2004) agreed that instructional materials are indispensable to the effective teaching and learning activities.
Enaigbe (2009) noted that basic materials such as textbooks, most board and essential equipment like computer, projector, television and video are not readily available in many schools. In a town study, Olumorin, Yusuf, Ajidagba and Jekayinfa (2010) observed that instructional materials help teachers to teach conveniently and the learners to learn easily without any problem