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EFFECT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION ON ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SECONDARY STUDENTS IN RIVERS STATE

Vocational Technical Education Project Topics & Materials

EFFECT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION ON ENTREPRENEURIAL BEHAVIOUR OF SECONDARY STUDENTS IN RIVERS STATE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Approval Page                                                                                                                        ii

Certification                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      v

Table of Content                                                                                                         vii

List of Tables                                                                                                              ix

List if Figures                                                                                                              x

Abstract                                                                                                                      xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study                                                                                           1

Statement of the problem                                                                                           9

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                  11

Significance of the Study                                                                                           11

Research Questions                                                                                                     13

Hypotheses                                                                                                                 13

Scope of the Study                                                                                                     14

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Conceptual Framework                                                                                           16

Concept of Entrepreneurship                                                                                      17

Concept of Entrepreneurship Education                                                                    19

Concept of Entrepreneurial Behaviour                                                                       29

  • Identification of opportunity 30
  • Conduct of feasibility study 36
  • Writing of business Plan 38
  • Presentation of business plan 41

Theoretical framework

Expended Activity Model (Engestrom, 2001)                                                           43

The Change Theory of Entrepreneurship (European Commission, 2015)                  45

Review of Empirical Studies

  • Identification of opportunity 47
  • Conduct of feasibility study 49
  • Writing of business Plan 51
  • Presentation of business plan 52

Summary of Reviewed Literature                                                                           55

CHAPTER THREE:            RESEARCH METHOD

Research Design                                                                                                         58

Area of the Study                                                                                                       59

Population of the Study                                                                                              59

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                                59

Instruments for Data Collection                                                                                 60

Validation of Instrument                                                                                            62

Reliability of Instruments                                                                                           63

Method of Data Collection                                                                                         63

Control of Extraneous Variables                                                                                64

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           65

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS

Results                                                                                                                        66

CHAPTER FIVE:    DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION,

                                    IMPLICATION AND RECOMMENDATION               

Discussion of the findings                                                                                          77

Conclusion                                                                                                                  79

Implications of the findings                                                                                        79

Recommendations                                                                                                      81

Limitation of the study                                                                                               82

Suggestion for further studies                                                                                                83

Summary of the study                                                                                                            83

REFERENCES                                                                                                        86

APPENDICES

APPENDIX I:            Preliminary Information for Teachers on Entrepreneurship

Education Module for Senior Secondary II                                       93

APPENDIX II :   Schedule of Activities for Entrepreneurship Education

APPENDIX III:  Entrepreneurship Education Syllabus for Senior Secondary II     94

APPENDIX IV : Students’ Adaptive Entrepreneurial Behaviour Test

(SAEBT) (Day I)                                                                            98

APPENDIX V:  Students’ Adaptive Entrepreneurial Behaviour

Evaluation Guideline                                                                       99

APPENDIX VI:  Students’ Adaptive Entrepreneurial Behaviour

Evaluation Scale                                                                             100

APPENDIX VII: Table Showing Population and Sample of the Study                   101

APPENDIX VIII: Tables Showing Statistical Analysis of Research

Questions and Hypothesis                                                            102

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1:       The mean score difference between secondary school

students in the experimental and control group on

opportunity identification                                                                   66

Table 4.2:       The mean score difference between secondary school

students in the experimental and control group on conduct of

feasibility study                                                                                  67

Table 4.3:       The mean score difference between secondary school

students in the experimental and control group on writing

business plan                                                                                       68

Table 4.4:       The mean score difference between secondary school

students in the experimental and control group on

business plan presentation                                                                   69

Table 4.5:       ANCOVA showing the significant difference between

mean scores of secondary students in the experimental and

control group on opportunity identification.                                      70

Table 4.6:       ANCOVA showing the significant difference between mean

scores of secondary students in the experimental and control

group on conduct of feasibility study.                                                            71

Table 4.7:       ANCOVA showing the significant difference between mean

scores of secondary students in the experimental and control

group on writing business plan.                                                          71

Table 4.8:       ANCOVA showing the significant difference between mean

scores of secondary students in the experimental and control

group on business plan presentation.                                                  72

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1:      Conceptual Framework on Entrepreneurship Education                    16

Figure 2.2:      Components of an entrepreneurship education                                  21

Figure 2.3:      Idea generation/creation process                                                         32

Figure 2.4:      Expended Model of Activity Theory (Engestrom, 2001).                 44

Figure 2.5:      Theory of change triggered by entrepreneurship education               46

Figure 2.6:      Impact mapping – establishing causal chains                                      46

Abstract

The study examined effect of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial behavior on secondary students in Rivers state. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study consisted 237 public secondary schools in twenty three education zones with student population of 118, 723. Based on students’ attendance register, a sample of 164 students from eight (8) secondary schools in four education zones was drawn using the multi stage sampling technique. Instruments used for data collection consists of Students’ Adaptive Entrepreneurial Behavior Test (SAEBT) and Students’ Adaptive Entrepreneurial Behavior Evaluation Scale (SAEBES). Data generated from trial testing were analysed using Cronbach Alpha statistics and the overall reliability index of 0.44 was obtained for the control group and the index of 0.79 for the experimental group. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Results of the hypotheses yielded a significant mean score difference between the control and experimental group on all the sub-variables of entrepreneurial behavior. Findings of the study indicate that entrepreneurship education has a far reaching effect on entrepreneurial behavior when measured on opportunity identification, conduct of feasibility study, writing of business plan and business plan presentation to the audience. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include: that there should be prompt training of entrepreneurship education teachers for secondary school education; that the curriculum of secondary education be reviewed to include entrepreneurship education as a compulsory subject.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Education plays a very important role in socio-economic development including employment creation. With this fact, some African countries including Nigeria have put in place innovative reforms to strengthen their education systems. However, there is a limited progress in comparison with other nations of the world. This may be contributed by insufficient understanding of the positive effect that education can have on economic development (European Commission, 2009). Based on that fact, education is defined as the process of learning to live as useful and acceptable member of society. Thus, the definition of education has two key components, namely usefulness and acceptability. Usefulness may entail the process of converting a person from being non-productive to become productive in a particular society and thus an entrepreneurship education may serve the purpose. A key assumption underlying this belief is that entrepreneurial skills and behaviours are not fixed personal characteristics. They can be learned through education system using an appropriate curriculum.

However, one of the main challenges facing Nigeria education system is the appropriateness of educational package that can deliver on the skills needed to boost entrepreneurial behaviour in order to deal with unemployment issue. In attempt to address this challenge, Nigeria government introduced entrepreneurship education in the secondary school curriculum. Supplementary education policy reforms such as change in educational system from 6-3-3-4 to 9-3-4, curriculum review, teacher training and quality assurance were also put in place. To ensure effective implementation of the policy reform, the Rivers state government of Nigeria further declared state of emergency in primary and secondary education. Based on that development, secondary school students are assumed to be prepared for entrepreneurship before and after graduation.

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