TITLE PAGE                                                                                                             I

APPROVAL                                                                                                              II

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                     III

DEDICATION                                                                                                           IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                       V

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                           VI

LIST FIGURES                                                                                                         IX

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                     X

LIST OF APPENDIX                                                                                                            XII

ABSTRACT                                                                                                               XIII



Background of the Study                                                                               1

Statement of the Problem                                                                               10

Purpose of the Study                                                                                      11

Significance of the Study                                                                               12

Research Questions                                                                                         15

Research Hypotheses                                                                                      15

Scope of the Study                                                                                         17



Conceptual Framework                                                                                           18

  • Linkages in agricultural innovation generation             18
  • Dissemination and adoption of innovations             34
  • Agricultural research in Nigeria 49
  • Place of agricultural education and training in the agricultural

Innovation triad                                                                                       51

  • Agricultural production and environmental quality 54
  • Environmental quality: indicators and assessment 71

Theoretical Framework                                                                                            73

  • Agricultural Innovation System 73
  • Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) Theory 76
  • Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior 78

 Related Empirical Studies                                                                                         81

Summary of Review of Related Literature                                                                89



Design of the Study                                                                                        91

Area of the Study                                                                                           91

Population for the Study                                                                                92

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                   93

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                       93

Validation of the Instrument                                                                          94

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                           95

Method of Data Collection                                                                             96

Method of Data Analysis                                                                               96



Research Question One                                                                                  97

Hypothesis One                                                                                              98

Research Question Two                                                                                  99

Hypothesis Two                                                                                              101

Research Question Three                                                                                102

Hypothesis Three                                                                                            103

Research Question Four                                                                                  104

Hypothesis Four                                                                                              105

Research Question Five                                                                                  106

Hypothesis Five                                                                                              107

Research Question Six                                                                                    108

Hypothesis Six                                                                                                109

Research Question Seven.                                                                              110

Hypothesis Seven                                                                                           112

Findings of the Study                                                                                     113

Discussion of the Findings                                                                             116


Restatement of the Problem                                                                           127

Summary of Procedure Used                                                                          129

Principal Findings of the Study                                                                      129

Conclusion of the Study                                                                                 131

Implications of the Findings                                                                           133

Recommendations of the Study                                                                     137

Limitations of the Study                                                                                 138

Suggestions for Further Study                                                                        139

REFERENCES                                                                                              140

Appendices                                                                                                     156 


Figure 1:       Relationship between research, extension, education and farmers       33

Figure 2:       Ball shaped curve showing categories of individual innovators

and percentages within each category                                                  43 

 Figure 3:       S-curve representing rate of adoption of an innovation over time       44                                       LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Mean ratings of the responses on mechanisms employed for linkages

               by agencies                                                                                                   98 

Table 2: Analysis of variance test for comparing data obtained from agricultural

                extension workers, AET lecturers and agricultural research scientists

on the mechanism employed for linkage            99                                                 

Table 3: Mean ratings of the responses of respondents on constraints to linkages

in innovation generation and adoption                                                        100

Table 4:  Analysis of variance test for comparing the responses of agricultural

                 research scientists, Agricultural extension workers, and agricultural

education lecturers  on the constraints to effective linkages in

agricultural innovation generation and adoption                                        101

Table 5: Mean ratings of the responses of respondents on the strategies for

                enhancing linkages in agricultural  innovation generation and

adoption                                                                                                      102

Table 6: Analysis of variance test for comparing the responses of Agric. research

                scientists, agric extension workers and agricultural education lecturers

on the strategies for enhancing linkages among agencies in agricultural

innovation generation and adoption                                                          103

Table 7: Mean ratings of the responses of respondents on the level of adoption of environment friendly agricultural practices                                                        104

Table 8: Analysis of variance test for comparing data obtained from the responses

of farmers, agricultural extension workers and agricultural research scientists

on the extent of adoption of environment friendly agricultural practice     105 

Table 9:  Mean ratings of the responses of respondents on the ways environment

                friendly agricultural practices promote environmental quality                   106

Table 10: Analysis of variance test for comparing the responses of extension workers, research scientists, and AET lecturers on ways environment friendly

                  agricultural practices promote environmental quality                               107

Table 11: Mean ratings of the responses of respondents on the obstacles to the

                  adoption of environment friendly agricultural practices by farmers         108

Table 12: Analysis of variance test for comparing data obtained from the responses

                 of farmers, extension workers, research scientists and AET lecturers       109

               adoption of environment friendly  agricultural practices                              111 

Table 14: Analysis of variance tests for comparing the responses of research

scientists, extension workers, AET lecturers  and farmers on the measures

that could promote the adoption of environment friendly agricultural

practices                                                                                                         113


Appendix A:   Letter to Validates                                                                 156

Appendix B:   Research instrument                                                               157

Appendix C:   Distribution of population of respondents                             165

Appendix D:   Sample for the study                                                               166

Appendix E:    Result of the analysis using Statistical Package

for Social Science                                                                  167

Appendix F:    Result of reliability test using statistical Package

for Social Sciences                                                                 192



The need to supply sufficient food and fibre to satisfy the ever increasing population is one of the greatest challenges facing government at all levels in Nigeria. To this end, government establish agricultural research institutes, departments, colleges and universities of agriculture to generate and teach farmers, practices and systems meant to boast agricultural production.  In spite of the long history of agricultural research and the fast increasing number of agricultural research institutes and colleges/universities of agriculture, coupled with the large volume of information/innovation resulting from enhanced research efforts, agricultural production has remained largely at subsistent level. The innovations generated are either not adopted or inappropriately adopted with severe environmental consequences. This study was carried out to investigate the linkages in agricultural innovation generation and adoption for promotion of environmental quality. Seven research questions were answered while seven related null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Proportionate random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select 329 respondents. A 117 item structured questionnaire developed from the literature reviewed was used to collect data from the respondents. Each of the structured questionnaire items was assigned four response options of strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The questionnaire items were face validated by three experts. The reliability data was collected from 20 respondents outside the area of study and a reliability coefficient of 0.82 was obtained using the cronbach alpha reliability test. The findings revealed poor/weak linkages among agencies involved in agricultural innovation generation and adoption. Fifteen constraints to linkages were identified to include inappropriate government policy, inequality and gap in qualification and salary scale, weak legal and policy framework for linkages, poor attitude and low morale of some agencies, poor logistics support, lack of incentives for linkage activities, lack of trust and confidence among agencies and inadequate well trained personnel in some agencies. Seven strategies for enhancing linkages were identified which include entrenching linkage mandates in policies establishing each agencies, making formal arrangements for linkage activities, organizing orientation on linkage activities, building linkage leadership in administration and promoting joint priority setting, planning, implementation and evaluation of research and training projects among others. The findings also revealed low level of adoption of environment friendly agricultural innovations. Eighteen obstacles to adoption of environment friendly innovations were identified to include high labour requirement, low level of education of farmers, low economic potentials and profitability of environment friendly agricultural practices, lack of clear and reliable information among others, while sixteen measures to promote adoption were identified to include provision of material inputs required for adoption, making application procedures simple and easy, enhancing technical skills and capacity of farmers among others. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that linkage mandate should be formalized in policies establishing the agencies and massive education and enlightenment of farmers and the general public on the economic potential and profitability of environment friendly agricultural practices should be embarked upon.                                     

            CHAPTER ONE


Background of the Study

The supply of sufficient food and fibre to satisfy the ever increasing population is the greatest challenge of government at all levels in Nigeria. Globally, agricultural production is seen as being central to the overall wellbeing of the populace. The commanding position of the agricultural sector in Nigeria is manifested in its dominant share of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employing more than 70% of the active labour force and generating about 88% of non-oil foreign exchange earnings (Eboh, 2003). In 2009, the agricultural sector contributed about 41.84% of Nigeria’s GDP and provided employment for about 70% of the workforce (Corporate Agriculture, 2012). The annual contribution of the agricultural sector to the Nigeria’s GDP stands at 35% and employment of about 70 – 75% of the working population annually (Osinowo, 2012). Therefore the challenge for African countries and Nigeria in particular, is how to increase agricultural production and rural incomes without irreparably damaging the natural resource base upon which agricultural production rest.

To achieve this, government sets up various agencies, institutions, agricultural universities, and extension agencies to generate and circulate innovations needed by stakeholders. Of these agencies, agricultural research institutes (ARI), agricultural education and training (AET) institutions and agricultural extension agencies (AEA) play crucial roles in generating and circulating information about agricultural production to farmers.

The ultimate aim of all applied agricultural research is to increase agricultural production and improve the standard of living of farmers through the generation of innovations and technologies related to agriculture. These innovations are arrived at through careful experiments conducted by agricultural researchers domiciled in agricultural research institutes as well as in departments, faculties and colleges/ universities of agriculture across the country. Presently, there are twenty two (22) research institutes in Nigeria, each with a specific mandate in crop, animal or commodity and fields of activity (Voh, 1999) and twenty three (23) faculties of agriculture and veterinary medicine across Nigerian universities and the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan (Voh, 1999). These research efforts give rise to a body of knowledge, technologies, practices and systems which form the basis for innovations related to agriculture and environmental management.

Agricultural development depends on innovation. Innovation is a major source of improved productivity, competitiveness and economic growth throughout advanced and emerging economies, and plays an important role in creating jobs, generating income, alleviating poverty, and driving social development. Continuous innovation is necessary if farmers, agribusinesses, and even nations are to cope, compete, and thrive in the midst of changes in agriculture and economy. An innovation has been defined by Hall (2006) as new creations of social and economic significance. They may be brand new, but are more often combinations of existing elements. For Hall and Dijman (2006), the concept of innovation is a search for development, adaptation, imitation and adoption of technologies that are new to a specific context. It is a process that involves continuous interaction among stakeholders. There must be continuous learning for innovations to take place and the opportunity to learn depend on the degree and type of interactions among the different enterprises, organizations and related sectors as well as institutional behaviours which determine the extent and rate at which information and knowledge are produced, transferred and utilized (CTA, 2005). It is a process by which farmers and farms accept and use agricultural technologies and services that are new to them.