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EFFECT OF ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION ON PERFORMANCE OF PULLET CHICKS FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DIETARY FIBRE

Animal Science Project Topics & Materials

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed diets containing varying levels of fibre and supplementary enzyme. One hundred and twenty 3 -week old Harco black pullet chicks averaging 249.87 – 250.23g body weight were randomly divided into 8 groups of 15 birds each. The groups were randomly assigned to 8 energetic  (11.78-11.96 MJ/Kg ME)  and nitrogenous (20% crude protein) diets in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement involving four levels (5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0%) of fibre and two enzyme levels (0 and 0.25%). Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 5 birds per replicate. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum to the birds during the 8 weeks experimental period. Results showed that the weight gain of chicks that consumed diets without enzyme supplementation decreased significantly (P<0.01) as the dietary fibre level increased beyond 6% level . Average daily feed intake (ADFI) also increased significantly (P<0.01) at the 7 and 8% dietary fibre levels. Chicks fed 6% crude fibre diet with enzyme supplementation had significantly (P<0.01) higher average daily weight gain (ADWG), final body weight (FBW) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) and lower (P<0.01) cost of feed per kg weight gain than those fed the control diet. There was a significant (P<0.01) increase in the intake of crude fibre (CF) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) as the fibre level in the diet increased beyond 6%. Dry matter (DM), nitrogen and CF retentions were significantly (P<0.01) decreased as the dietary fibre increased beyond 6% inclusion level. Increasing levels of crude fibre in the diets had no significant (P>0.01) effect on the WBC and MCHC but affected the PCV, Hb, RBC, MCH and MCV significantly (P<0.01). There were significant (P<0.01) interactions between dietary fibre and enzyme levels on ADWG, FBW, ADFI, FCR, PER , cost of total feed intake and feed cost per kg weight gain. Enzyme supplementation increased (P<0.01) ADWG, FBW and PER at the 6, 7 and 8% fibre inclusion levels; reduced (P<0.01) feed intake at the 5, 7 and 8% fibre inclusion levels ; reduced (P<0.01) FCR values at all the fibre inclusion levels and reduced (P<0.01) the cost of total feed intake and feed cost per kg weight gain at all the fibre inclusion levels. There were also significant (P<0.01) interactions between fibre and enzyme levels on NFE intake, DM , nitrogen, CF, EE, NFE, PCV, Hb, RBC, MCH and MCV. Enzyme supplementation reduced (P<0.01) NFE intake at the 7% fibre inclusion level; increased(P<0.01)  the retention of DM at the 5% and 7 %, fibre inclusion levels;  increased (P<0.01) nitrogen retention at the 5%, 6% and8% fibre inclusion levels;  increased (P<0.01) CF retention at the 6%,7% and 8% fibre inclusion levels and   increased(P<0.01)  EE and NFE retentions at the 7% and 8% fibre inclusion levels; increased (P<0.01) PCV, Hb and RBC at the 6% and 7 %, fibre inclusion levels and   increased (P<0.01) MCH and MCV at the 7% fibre inclusion level. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it was concluded that pullet chicks can be fed 6% crude fibre diet without supplementary enzyme and that up to 8% dietary fibre can be included in enzyme- supplemented pullet chicks’ diet without adverse effects on growth performance of chicks.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page …………………………………………………………….   i

Certification ……………………………………………………………            iii

Dedication     …………………………………………………………….           iv

Acknowledgement …………………………………………………… v

Abstract …………………………………………………………………  vi

Table of contents ……………………………………………………….          vii

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION                                                                                                   1

1.1   Background of study …………………………………………………… 1

1.2    Statement of problem …………………………………………………… 4

1.3 Justification of the study…………………………………………………4    1.4   Objective of the study……………………………………………………5

CHAPTER TWO

  1. LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………. …6
    • Poultry feeding and Alternative feed stuffs for poultry ………………6
    • Poultry Nutrition ………………………………………………………10
    • Dietary fibre ………………………………………………………….12
    • Major sources of fibre in the diet ……………………………………..15
      • Bambara wheat offal …………………………………………………15
      • Palm kernel meal ……………………………………………………..17
      • Wheat offal ……………………………………………………………18
    • Exogenous Enzymes ……………………………………………………..20

Economic and Environmental impacts of Enzymes utilization in

Poultry diets…………………………………………………………21

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS ………………………………………….25

3.1       Location and the study ………………………………………………25

3.2       Animals and experimental diets ……………………………………..25

3.3       Apparent nutrient retention by pullet ………………………………..26

3.4       Blood collection and Evaluation …………………………………….27

3.5       Experimental design ………………………………………………….27

3.6       Proximate and statistical analyses ……………………………………28

CHAPTER FOUR

 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ……………………………………………29

4.1       Effect of dietary fibre levels and supplementary enzyme on growth

Performance of pullet chicks…………………………………………29

4.2       Cost implication of feeding varying dietary fibre levels

and supplementary enzyme to pullet chicks…………………………34

4.3       Nutrient intake by pullet chicks fed varying dietary fibre levels…….36

4.4       Apparent retention of nutrients by pullet chicks………………………37

4.5       Haematological parameters of pullet chicks fed varying dietary

fibre    levels and supplementary enzyme……………………………40

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION…………………………………………44

5.1       Summary……………………………………………………………….44

5.2       Conclusion…………………………………………………………….46

 

REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………….47

 

APPENDICES………………………………………………………………63

                                             LIST OF TABLES

  1. Percentage composition pf experimental diets ……………………26
  2. Proximate composition of experimental diets……………………..29
  3. Performance of pullet chicks fed varying dietary fibre levels

and supplementary enzyme………………………………………29

  1. Cost implication of feeding varying dietary fibre levels

and supplementary enzyme to pullet chicks. ……………………34

  1. Nutrient intake of pullet chicks fed varying dietary fibre levels

and supplementary enzyme………………………………………36

  1. Apparent retention (% of intake) of nutrients by pullet

chicks fed varying dietary fibre level and supplementary

enzyme……………………………………………………………38

  1. Effect of varying dietary fibre levels and supplementary enzyme on haematological parameters of pullet chicks……………………….41

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of Study

Poultry production has an unquestionable propensity to close the existing gap in animal protein consumption in the country. This according to Ibe (2004) is because of their short gestation and generation intervals, large number, fast growth, greater affordability, ease of raising, absence of taboos to production and consumption and absence of barrier to production in any climatic zone in the country. Obioha (1992a) and Oluyemi and Roberts (2000)  further stated that poultry enjoys a relative advantage over other livestock in terms of its ease of management, high turn-over, quick return to capital investment and wide acceptance of its product for human consumption.

Poultry industry occupies a unique position in the livestock sector of Nigeria because of the yearning demand for its products. Ikeme et al. (1986) pointed out that the industry sprang up with the advent of large poultry farmers which produced far more eggs than can be sold locally.  Agriculturalists and nutritionists generally agree that development of the poultry industry is the fastest means of bridging the protein deficiency gap in the country. Oluyemi and Roberts (2000) stated that the problem of protein malnutrition is enormous in developing countries like Nigeria; poultry is probably the fastest route to achieve any appreciable improvement in the nutritional standard of the populace because of its short generation interval, quick turnover rate and relatively low capital investment, they also stated that increased egg production is one sure way of achieving the target of providing quality animal protein at a minimum cost to the consumers.

The highest productivity of eggs in the Nigerian poultry industry apparently stemmed from the use of high producing strains of birds as well as the development of balanced feeds, intensive housing and better poultry equipment (Obioha, 1992b; Oluyemi and Roberts, 2000).

For some time now, the Nigerian poultry industry has devoted more attention to the exotic breeds of chicken due to their high performance in terms of body weight, egg-production and feed to gain ratio.

Egg is one of the most nutritious animal products. It is an excellent source of high quality protein in human food that is common and affordable. Documented reports indicate that two eggs a day are sufficient to 17.2% of an adult person’s protein needs as well as essential vitamins and trace element (Ikeme et al., 1986).

Most of the eggs in the Nigerian market are produced by exotic breeds of chicken genetically developed for egg production.

Increased egg production in Nigeria is being hampered by high cost of feed, which constitutes about 70-80% of the total cost of egg production (Acromovic, 2001). The rapid development of intensive poultry and egg production has been accompanied by an increased competition between humans and animals for maize which is a major staple food in the main poultry production zones. This competition could be alleviated by replacing maize in poultry feed by locally available agricultural by-products that are less exploited by humans. (Teguia,  1995).

According to Oluyemi and Roberts (1999), the competition between man and poultry for food ingredient is basically due to insufficient production of local feed items. As a matter of fact, the use of grain for feeding poultry when human needs have not been met raises questions of economic and moral justification. The rapid expansion and success of the poultry industry would depend mostly on the availability of good quality and relatively inexpensive feed ingredients for the formulation of poultry feeds. Dependence on  the alternative source of ingredients, especially, when it encourage a shift to ingredient for which there is less competition, may help if it is sufficiently available. To a great extent by-products are cheaper to use in poultry ration since there is little or no competition for them. These may be agricultural, industrial or distillery by- products. The by-products include palm kernel meal, Bambara waste, wheat offal, etc. Studies in the tropics and else where had revealed the potentials of these by-products as feed ingredients even though they may be included at low levels in the diet of animals. Obioha(1992b) estimated the level of consumption of animal protein in Nigeria to be about 8g per day, at about 27g less than the minimum requirement recommended by the National Research Council of the United States of America.

Residues and industrial by-products generally contain high levels of fibre hence they are not commonly used in compounding feeds. To fully exploit their cost saving potential and waste recycling value, it is necessary to study the factors which inhibit their feed value namely their indigestibility as a result of their high fibre levels and their low utilization as supplementary energy source. Knowledge of the content and utilization of the available fillers will further guide ration formulators and feed millers on their levels of inclusion in diets.

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Animal protein deficiency in the diets of most Nigerians has become a chronic problem. A situation where the animal protein intake of humans in Nigeria is about one-tenth of the intake in developed countries like USA, Canada, Australia (Oluyemi and Roberts, 2000). Thus there is need to step up poultry production to bridge this yawning gap which the use of alternative feed ingredients as a cheap source of protein and energy is being considered to possess the potentiality.

However, the nutritive value of these alternative ingredients is negatively affected by their   high fibre and low protein contents. Also they are not suitable for inclusion in monogastric’s ration at high levels because they contain some anti-nutritional factors which decrease growth rate and feed utilization. Ordinarily, poultry cannot utilize high fibre diets and this is because of the absence of the digestive frame work that can elaborately digest large amounts of fibre. This limits the proper utilization of those feeds that contain a high proportion of structural components such as cellulose lignin and pectin by the poultry. Most of the enzymatic digestion in the chicken takes place in the duodenum which is supplied by secretion from the pancreas containing various amyliolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. These enzymes however, help in breaking the high fibre feeds but do not totally break them fully for optimum utilization by the birds (Obioha, 1992b).

It is therefore necessary to achieve a near complete breakdown of these fibres by incorporating enzymes in diets of monogastrics to further break down the high fibre materials not taken care of by the endogenous enzymes (ZoBell et al., 2000).

1.3       Justification of the Study

 

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