PURCHASE FULL WORK -3500

EFFECT OF PARITY AND BIRTH TYPE ON UDDER CHARACTERISTICS, MILK YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF WEST AFRICAN DWARF SHEEP

Animal Science Project Topics & Materials

ABSTRACT

 

Twelve West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep, four in each of parities one, two and three were used to determine effect of parity and birth type on udder characteristics during  pregnancy and lactation, milk yield and composition and their phenotypic relationships with milk yield . Udder length (UL), udder width (UW), udder circumference (UC), udder volume (UV), teat length (TL), teat width (TW), teat circumference (TC), distance between the teat (DBT) and teat height from the ground (THG) of sheep were measured monthly for the five months of pregnancy and weekly for the twelve weeks of lactation commencing from four days post partum. Result showed that, parity effect on all udder characteristics during pregnancy and lactation was highly significant (P < 0.01). During pregnancy ewes in parity three had highest values (cm) of 8.26, 8.08, 23.95, 1.12, 1.08, 2.49, 287.34, 6.25 and 27.20 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG, respectively, followed by ewes in parity two with values (cm) of  6.30, 7.32, 23.29, 1.05, 0.72, 2.18, 229.3, 5.73 and 23.69 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG, respectively. Those in parity one had least values (cm) of 5.88, 6.33, 22.19, 1.02, 0.69, 2.14, 119.91, 5.35 and 22.02 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG, respectively. During lactation, ewes in the third parity had significantly highest values (cm) of 9.08, 9.00, 39.10, 1.89, 1.24, 3.31, 400.36, 7.11 and 25.98 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG, respectively, followed by those in the second parity with 7.88, 8.66, 35.79, 1.57, 1.03, 2.53, 310.03, 6.56 and 24.95 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG, respectively. Ewes in the first parity had significantly lowest values (cm) of 7.33, 8.35, 32.56, 1.28, 0.93, 2.41, 271.90, 6.28 and 25.98 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG, respectively. Birth type effect on udder characteristics during pregnancy and lactation was highly significant (P < 0.01). Twin bearing ewes had significantly higher values (cm) of 6.88, 7.31, 23.71, 1.09, 0.85, 2.35, 227.68, 5.86 and 24.68 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG, respectively than those of single bearing ewes (6.74, 7.18, 22.58, 1.03, 0.80, 2.18, 196.64, 5.68 and 23.92 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG, respectively) during pregnancy. During lactation, twin bearing ewes had significantly higher values (cm) of 8.35, 8.98, 37.25, 1.67, 1.13, 2.82, 364.25, 6.75 and 25.10 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG, respectively than single bearing ewes with values of 7.84, 8.36, 34.38, 1.49, 1.01, 2.69, 290.61, 6.55 and 24.65 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT and THG, respectively. Ewes in the third parity had highest mean milk yield of 228.95 ml followed by ewes in second parity (157.18 ml), while ewes in the first parity had least milk yield of 126.42 ml. Twin bearing ewes in the third parity had highest mean milk yield of 249.09±14.85 ml during lactation. Single bearing ewes in the first parity had the smallest mean value of 124.54 ml.  Parity effect on milk composition was highly significant (P < 0.01) for moisture, total solid, solid not fat, protein, fat and ash but not significant (P > 0.05) for lactose. Ewes in the third parity had highest mean values (%) of 79.24, 20.73, 12.98, 6.58, 7.84, 0.77 and 5.53 for moisture, total solid, solid not fat, protein, fat, ash and lactose, respectively, followed by ewes in the second parity with 80.95, 18.84, 11.79, 6.04, 6.27, 0.76 and 4.98 for same constituents while ewes in the first parity had the corresponding values of 82.75, 17.25, 10.63, 5.48, 6.61, 2.75 and 3.37. Birth type effect on milk composition was highly significant (P < 0.01) for all milk constituents except total solid and lactose. Twin bearing ewes had significantly higher mean values (%) of 80.86, 18.94, 11.85, 6.06, 7.29, 0.768 and 4.97 for moisture, total solid, solid not fat, protein, fat, ash and lactose respectively, than those of single bearing ewes with 81.08 %, 18.92 %, 11.75 %, 6.00 %, 7.18 %, 0.760 % and 4.96 % for corresponding constituents. The correlation coefficients between udder dimensions and milk yield were; 0.92, 0.79, 0.91, 0.92, 0.86, 0.88, 0.60, 0.08 and -0.24 for UL, UW, UC, TL, TW, TC, UV, DBT, and THG respectively.

 

  

TABLE OF CONTENT

Content                                                                                                                             Page

Title page                                                                                                                                i

Declaration                                                                                                                              ii

Certification                                                                                                                            iii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  v

Abstract                                                                                                                                  vi

Table of content                                                                                                                      vii

List of tables                                                                                                                           ix

List of figure                                                                                                                           xii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION                                                                                                           1

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 The distribution and potential of sheep in the tropics                                           4

2.2 Advantages of West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep                                              5

2.3 Reproductive potentials of WAD sheep                                                       6

2.4. Milk yield potentials of diary ewes                                                                      6

2.5 Nutrient requirement of pregnant and lactating ewes                                        9

2.6 Mammary gland development in ewes                                                            12

2.7 Udder measurements and their importance                                         14

2.8 Lactation persistency                                                                                        15

2.9 Unique nutritional values of sheep milk                                                                17

2.10 Composition of sheep milk                                                                             17

2.11 Factors affect milk yield and composition of sheep                                  24                           2.12 Animal factors                                                                                  26

2.13 Environment                                                                                  31

2.14 Management practices                                                                                33

2.15 The use of sheep milk                                                                                35

2.16 Conservation of fresh milk                                                                             37                                2.17 Management of diary sheep                                                                       38

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                                                            39

3.1 Experimental site                                                                                               39

3.2 Experimental animals                                                                                        39

3.3 Experimental design                                                                                          39

3.4 Management of experimental animals                                                               40

3.5 Data collection                                                                                                   42

3.6 Statistical analysis                                                                                              44

CHAPTER FOUR

 

4.0 RESULTS                                                                                                                     45

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION                                                                                                               72

5.1 Conclusion                                                                                                             77

5.2 Recommendation                                                                                                     79

REFERENCES                                                                                                                    80

LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                                                                                                  Page

  1. Recommended nutrient intake and dietary nutrient content for a

mature 70 kg ewe at various physiological states                                                    10

  1. Composition of supplemental diet                                                                             41
  2. Proximate composition (g/100gDM) of supplemental diet fed WAD sheep                        46
  3. Least square means (cm) showing the effects of birth type and parity on udder characteristics of WAD sheep during pregnancy             47
  4. Least square means (cm) showing the effects of month of pregnancy on udder

characteristics of WAD sheep during pregnancy                                                       49

  1. Least square means (cm) showing the effects of interaction between parity and birth type on udder characteristics of WAD sheep during  pregnancy (UL, UW and UC)                         50
  1. Least square means (cm) showing the effects of interaction between parity and  birth type on udder characteristics of WAD sheep during  pregnancy (TL, TW and TC)      51
  1. Least square means (cm) showing the effects of interaction between parity and  birth type on udder characteristics of WAD sheep during                                         52

pregnancy (UV, DBT and THG)

  1. Least square means (cm) showing the effects birth type and parity

on udder characteristics of WAD sheep during lactation                                          55

  1. Least square means (cm) showing the effects of week of lactation

on udder characteristics of WAD sheep during lactation                                         56

 

  1. Least square means (cm) showing the effect of interaction between parity

and birth type on udder characteristics of WAD sheep during

lactation (UL, UW and UC)                                                                                                 57

  1. Least square means (cm) showing the effect of interaction between parity

and birth type on udder characteristics of WAD sheep during

lactation (TL, TW and TC)                                                                                       58

  1. Least square means (cm) showing the effect of interaction between parity

and birth type on udder characteristics of WAD sheep during

lactation (UV, DBT and THG)                                                                                   59

  • Least square means (%) showing the effect of birth type and parity on milk

composition of WAD Sheep.                                                                                        60

15. Least square means (%) showing the effect of week of lactation on milk   composition of WAD Sheep                    62

  1. Least square means (%) showing the effect of interaction between parity

and birth type on milk composition of WAD Sheep                                                  63

  1. Least square means (%) showing the effect of interaction between parity and birth type on milk composition of WAD Sheep                                        64
  1. Least square means (%) showing the effect of interaction between parity

and birth type on milk composition of WAD Sheep                                                    65

  1. Least square means (ml) showing the effect of birth type and parity on milk

yield of WAD Sheep                                                                                                               67

  1. Least square means (ml) showing the effect of week of lactation on milk

yield of WAD Sheep                                                                                                               68

  1. Least square means (ml) showing the effect of interaction between

parity and birth type on milk yield                                                                             69

  1. Phenotypic correlation between udder characteristics and milk yield of          71

WAD sheep

 

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure                                                                                                                                 Page

  1. Diagram showing factors affecting milk yield and composition 25                                                  

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                    INTRODUCTION

The shortage of animal protein is a common problem facing many tropical countries including Nigeria (FAO, 2003). It was reported by Akinfala et al. (2003), that the supply of animal protein for human consumption in Nigeria was below the demand. Despite the numerous advantages associated with the consumption of animal protein, the minimum intake recommended by FAO (1992) has not been met in most developing countries.  Harold (1984) reported that meat was assumed to be the only product from cow when it was domesticated, whereas other dietary products from cattle included milk and its products. Harold (1984) further reported that animal milk was first known to have been used as human food around 5000 B.C. and it was first used as human food in the Middle East.

Meanwhile, the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO, 2001) reported that the world milk production percentage from cow was 84.6 % while that of sheep was 1.3 %. The composition of different kinds of milk as reported by George (2001) shows that the nutritional value of sheep milk with 19.30 % solids, 7 % fat, 5.98 % protein, 193 mg calcium, and 108 kcal is superior in quality to those of cow and goat with 12.01 % and12.97 % solids, 3.34 % and 4.14 % fat, 3.29 % and 3.56 % protein, 119 mg and 134 mg calcium and 69 kcal, respectively. There is therefore need to increase milk production from the sheep.

 

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