TITLE PAGE                                                                                      I

APPROVAL  PAGE                                                                             II

CERTIFICATION                                                                                III

DEDICATION                                                                                     IV

ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                                                        V

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                      VI

LIST OF TABLE                                                                                 X

ABSTRACT                                                                                        XI

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                    

Background of the Study                                                                     1

Statement of the Problem                                                                    7

Purpose of the Study                                                                          7

Significance of the Study                                                                    8

Research Question                                                                             9

Hypotheses                                                                              10

Scope of the Study                                                                             11


  1. Conceptual framework                                                           12
  • Entrepreneurial                                                                        13
  • Concept of automobile technology 20
  • Technical skills in Automobile Technology. 27
  • Managerial skills in Automobile Technology. 43
  • Financial skills in Automobile Technology. 45
  • Computer skills in Automobile Technology. 50
  1. Theoretical Framework                                                          55
  • Mcclelland Theory of Entrepreneurship 57
  • Markcassons Economic Theory 58
  • Abraham Maslows Theory of Self –Actualization Needs 58
  • Theory of equilibrium destruction by Schumpeter 59
  1. Review of Related Empirical Studies                                     59
  2. Summary of Review of Related Literature                             62

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                          Design of the Study                                                                    64

Area of the Study                                                                      65

Population for the Study                                                   65

Sample and sampling techniques                                              66      Instrument for Data Collection                                                         66

Validation of Instrument                                                             67

Reliability of the Instrument                                                       68

Method of Data Collection                                                         68

Method of Data Analysis                                                  69


Researcher Question 1 and Hypothesis 1                                  71

Researcher Question 2 and Hypothesis 2                                  82

Researcher Question 3 and Hypothesis 3                                  85

Researcher Question 4 and Hypothesis 4                                  87

Finding of the Study                                                                  90

Discussion of Findings                                                              91



Restatement of the Problem                                                      96

Description of procedure used                                                   96

Major Findings of the study                                                       97

Conclusion                                                                               97

Implications of the Study                                                           98

Recommendations                                                           99

Limitations of the Study                                                            100

Suggestions for Further Research                                            100

REFERENCES                                                                         100

APPENDICES                                                                          106

Request for Face-Validation of Research Instrument                106

Introduction Letter to the Respondent                                        107

Questionnaire                                                                           108

Population Distribution Table                                                    120

Questionnaire Administration  and Retrieval                              121

Interpretation of the mean scores using real limits

of numbers                                                                    122

Reliability formular by Kudar-Richardson                                 123


Table                                                                                       Page No

  1. Population Distribution of the Respondents 65
  2. Questionnaire Administration and Retrieval 69
  3. Interpretation of the mean scores using real limits

of numbers                                                                       69

  1. Mean and t-test analysis of the Responses of the

Respondents on the Technical skills improvement

needs of self-employed automobile technology graduates. 72

  1. Mean scores and t-test analysis of the responses

on the managerial skills improvement needs

of Self-Employed technical college Automobile

Technology Graduates.                                                             83

  1. Mean scores and t-test analysis of the responses on

the financial skills improvement needs of

Self-Employed Automobile Technology Graduates.                  85

  1. Mean scores and t-test analysis of the responses

on the marketing skills improvement needs of

Self-Employed Technical College Automobile

Technology Graduates.                                                             87


The study sought to determine the entrepreneurial skills improvement needs of self-employed technical college automobile technology graduates, four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated all derived from the literature review. 130 items questionnaires was used to collect relevant data from 30 respondents made up of automobile technical college self-employed graduates in Delta State. Mean and standard were used to answer the research questions while t-test statistics was employed to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that, self-employed automobile technology graduates needs improvement in their technical skills in order to meet up with the current ways of servicing automobile products; they also need to improve on their managerial skills, marketing skills and financial skills. The study was able to submerge computer skills into technical skills such as use of sensor code, diagnostic code, engine sensor, scanner computer skill, Gear sensor, tune-up sensor, brake sensor, coil sensor, car board diagnostic indicator etc.  Recommendations were made based on the findings of the study.           



Background to the Study

Entrepreneur is a person who has the ability to operate alone in business. It is one of the factors of production. The entrepreneur performs the function of building a business entity (Davis, 2008). An entrepreneur is a person who is willing and able to convert a new idea or innovation into a successful innovation (Schumpeter, 2013). The work of an entrepreneur is entrepreneurship. Therefore, entrepreneurship refers to creating and running own business. Entrepreneurship employs what Schumpeter called “the gale of creative destruction” to replace in whole or in part   inferior innovations across markets and industries, simultaneously creating new products including new business model. Creative destruction is largely responsible for the dynamism of industries and long-run economic growth (Drucker, 2008). Entrepreneurship is about taking risks. The behaviour of the entrepreneur reflect a kind of person willing to put his or her career and financial security on the lines and take risks in the name of an idea, spending much time as well as capital on uncertain venture. Entrepreneurship according to Omolayo (2006) is the act of starting a company, arranging business deals and taking risks in order to make profit through the education skills acquired. Another view of entrepreneurship education is the term given to someone who has innovative ideas and transformed them to profitable activities. Entrepreneurship can be described as “the process of bringing together creative and innovative ideas and coupling these with management and organizational skills in order to combine people, money and resources to meet an identified need and create wealth. Nwangwu (2007) opined that entrepreneurship is a process of bringing together the factors of production, which include land, labour and capital so as to provide a product or service for public consumption. In this work, entrepreneurship is viewed as practical application of knowledge, ideas, skills, finance, personal behaviour, land, labour, capital and other resources in order to exploit environmental opportunities for the purpose of establishing a company. The acts of entrepreneurship are often associated with the uncertainty, particularly when it involves bringing something really novel to the world, whose market never exist. Therefore entrepreneur is a person who manages factors of production, a risk taker, an innovator who is motivated by the need for achievement, uses focus devotion and commitment to attain his goal. They search for different ways of doing things, new method, new market, extra funding, management strategies etc. They are instruments of dynamism (change). Entrepreneurship involves skills, These skills are needed by every entrepreneur to function effectively in his or her business or occupation.

Skills mean expertness or dexterity or practical ability, facilitating doing something. Skills can be defined in this work as great ability or proficiency, expertness in servicing, repairing, maintenance and marketing. (Ede, 2001). Skills are dexterity in handling tools, expertness in the use of tools and machines and that of production of objects with speed and accuracy. There are different types of entrepreneurial skills, these are technical skills, managerial skills, financial skills, marketing skills and computer skills.

Technical skills are the skills needed by automobile technology graduates to function effectively in his or her profession. It helps them to diagnose faults in vehicles using tools, equipment and machines such as spanners, wrench, jack, screwdrivers etc. Managerial skills are needed in the workshop for planning, organizing, controlling, coordinating and directing. Management is all about utilizing the little resources available to achieve a desired goal. Financial skills are crucial to the success of any Auto venture, not only to start but for growth, expansion and to meet competition and changing of customer’s expectation. Finance serves as link that makes small business interrelationships possible (Olannye and Oyibe, 2002).