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ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS NEEDED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL GRADUATES FOR EMPLOYMENT IN SMALL BUSINESSES IN ENUGU STATE OF NIGERIA

Vocational Technical Education Project Topics & Materials

ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS NEEDED BY SECONDARY SCHOOL GRADUATES FOR EMPLOYMENT IN SMALL BUSINESSES IN ENUGU STATE OF NIGERIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page                                                                                                    i

Approval Page                                                                                           ii

Certification                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                     v

Table of Contents                                                                                       vii

List of Tables                                                                                              x

Abstract                                                                                                      xi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                      1

Background of the Study                                                                                     1

Statement of the Problem                                                                           8

Purpose of the Study                                                                                  9

Significance of the Study                                                                            9

Research Questions                                                                                    12

Hypotheses                                                                                                          12

Scope of the Study                                                                                               13

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE               14

 

Conceptual Framework                                                                                      14

  • Secondary School Education 15
  • Small Scale Business in Nigeria 17
  • Basic characteristics of small scale enterprise 21
  • Types of small business 23
  • Entrepreneurship skills needed by secondary school graduates 26
  • Management skills for employment in small business 31
  • Marketing skills for employment in small business 34
  • Accounting skills for employment in small business 38
  • Communication skills for employment in small business 44

 

Theoretical Framework                                                                                      50

  • Psychomotor Theory 50
  • Competency Theory 52
  • Skills Acquisition Theory 53
  • Experiential Theory 54

Related Empirical Studies                                                                         55

 

Summary of Literature Reviewed                                                           61

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                         63

Design of the Study                                                                                    63

Area of the Study                                                                                       64

Population for the Study                                                                                      64

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                               64

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                            65

Validation of the Instrument                                                                      65

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                      66

Method of Data Collection                                                                         66

Method of Data Analysis                                                                           67

 

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA    68

Research Question 1                                                                                   68

Research Question 2                                                                                   69

Research Question 3                                                                                   71

Research Question 4                                                                                   72

Hypothesis 1                                                                                              74

Hypothesis 2                                                                                              75

Hypothesis 3                                                                                             76

Hypothesis 4                                                                                              76

Findings of the Study                                                                                 77

Discussion of Findings                                                                               81

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS     90         

Re-statement of the Problem                                                                      90

Summary of Procedure Used                                                                      91

Summary of Findings                                                                                           92

Implications of the Study                                                                                     94

Conclusion                                                                                                           94

Recommendations                                                                                                95

Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                    96

REFERENCES                                                                                         97

APPENDICES

A:      Population                                                                                        102

B:      Validation of Research Instrument                                                    103

C:      Letter to Respondents                                                                       104

D:      Questionnaire                                                                                    104

E:      Reliability Analysis                                                                           107

F:      Analysis Result                                                                                 109

G:      t-test Analysis                                                                                   114

LIST OF TABLES 

Table                                                                                                          Page

 

  1. Mean ratings of respondents on the management skills needed by

secondary school graduates for employment in small business                  68

 

  1. Mean ratings of respondents on the marketing skills needed by

secondary school graduates for employment in small business                  70

 

  1. Mean ratings of respondents on the accounting skills needed by

Secondary school graduates for employment in small business                 71

 

  1. Mean ratings of respondents on the communication skills needed

by secondary school graduates for employment in small business   73

 

  1. t-test  analysis of the mean responses of secondary school graduates

and owners of small scale business on the management skills needed                           by the graduates                                                                                     74

 

  1. t-test analysis of the mean responses of supervisors and the employed

secondary school graduates on the marketing skills needed by

the graduates for employment in small business                               75

 

  1. t-test analysis of the mean responses of supervisors and employed

secondary school graduates on the accounting skills needed by

the graduates for employment in small business                               76

 

  1. t-test analysis of the mean responses of supervisors and secondary

School graduates on the communication skills needed by the

graduates for Employment in small business                                             77

Abstract

The major purpose of this study was to determine the entrepreneurial skills needed by secondary school graduates for employment in small businesses in Enugu state.  Four research questions were answered and four null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The target population for the study was 85,608. These comprise 3240 supervisors of registered small and medium scale enterprises with the corporate affairs commission, Enugu, Enugu State, plus 82368 secondary school graduates in the state, bringing the total population to 85608. The sample for the study was 712 comprising of 313 supervisors of small scale enterprises and 399 secondary school graduates.  Structured questionnaire was used to generate data for the study.  The instrument was face validated by three experts: two from Vocational and Technical Education and one from Science Education Department, all from University of Nigeria, Nsukka.  The Instrument was trial tested on 30 respondents comprising of 10 supervisors of small business enterprises in Anambra state and 20 secondary school graduates in Anambra state outside the study area.  Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and this yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.84.  Data were analysed using mean statistic for the research questions and t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Secondary school graduates were influenced by the ability to set appropriate business goals.  Based on the findings, it was concluded that, many of such skills were found as management, accounting, marketing and communication skills.  The graduates are therefore required to undergo training to enable them grow and develop their own enterprises.  The establishing of the enterprise will reduce unemployment and create job for the youths and other people in the society. It was recommended that, federal government and non-government organization (NGO) should join in the campaign for the relevance of entrepreneurial skills to secondary school graduates for employment in small scale business; principals of secondary schools in Enugu state should embark on entrepreneurship capacity building of the teachers to ensure better understanding of entrepreneurial skills and the operations in business. The curriculum planners should fully integrate entrepreneurship education into secondary schools curriculum.

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER ONE

Background of the Study

Business in Nigeria has been classified as small, medium and large. In the developed and developing countries, the government is turning to small scale enterprises as a means of solving economic problems. It is also the bedrock of innovation, inventions and employment. According to Kochadai (2012), small scale business is a type of business that is independently owned, operated and organized for profit, and is not dominant in its field with a small number of employees and a relatively low volume of sale. Ayozie and Jacob (2013) defined small scale business as a manufacturing establishment employing less than ten people, or whose investment in machinery and equipment does not exceed two hundred thousand naira. They further stated that small scale business represents a statistically significant proportion of the world economy.

In Nigeria to day, small scale business assists in promoting the growth of the country’s economy. Small scale businesses are sources for economic growth and development for every nation, because as they grow, their economy grows too (Olowu & Aliyu, 2015). Since the development index of nations are measured basically on their achievement in terms of provision of welfare to their populace, small scale businesses play, a role as employment providers in a way that ensures equitable income distribution (Kuratko, 2005). Thus, Ayanda and Laraba (2011) described small businesses as “mighty minors”, that functionalize market economics and remove or minimize imperfection factors that impede adaptation to change. Small scale business is generally believed to be the most appropriate scale of business for developing economics like Nigeria. Small scale business helps to diversify economics and at the same time create employment (Abuka, 2014). Abuka further stated that for a small scale business to survive in an increasingly competitive environment like Nigeria, a skilled entrepreneur is required.

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