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MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND VOCATIONAL PREFERENCES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS IN ONITSHA EDUCATIONAL ZONE OF ANAMBRA STATE

Vocational Technical Education Project Topics & Materials

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…………………………………………………………. I

Approval Page……………………………………………………..ii

Certification Page………………………………………………….iii

Dedication………………………………………………………….iv

Acknowledgement………………………………………………….v

Table of Contents………………………………………………….vi

List of Tables………………………………………………………ix

Abstract……………………………………………………………..x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION……………………………….. 1

Background of the Study………………………………………………….. 1

Statement of the Problem………………………………………………….. 7

Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………….. 8

Significance of the Study…………………………………………………… 8

Scope of the Study…………………………………………………………… 11

Research Questions………………………………………………………….. 11

Hypotheses…………………………………………………………………….. 12

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE………………. 13

Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………… 14

Concept of Adolescence……………………………………………………. 14

Concept of Vocation………………………………………………………… 17

Vocational Preferences……………………………………………………… 18

Concept of Motivation……………………………………………………… 19

Motivational Factors that Influence Vocational Preference of Secondary School Adolescent 20

Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………… 36

Development Theory……………………………………………………….. 37

Personality Type Theory………………………………………………….. 40

Need Theory…………………………………………………………………… 43

Theory of Motivation……………………………………………………….. 44

Review of Empirical Studies…………………………………………….. 45

Studies Related to Vocational Preferences…………………………… 46

Studies Related to Motivational Factors in the Choice of a

Vocation………………………………………………………………………… 48

Summary of Literature Review………………………………………… 52

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD………………….. 55

Research Design………………………………………………………………. 55

Area of the Study…………………………………………………………….. 55

Population of the Study……………………………………………………. 56

Sample and Sampling Technique……………………………………….. 56

Instrument for Data Collection………………………………………….. 57

Validation of the Instrument……………………………………………… 58

Reliability of the Instrument……………………………………………… 59

Method of Data Collection………………………………………………… 59

Method of Data Analysis………………………………………………….. 60

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS………………………………………… 61

Summary of Major Findings……………………………………………… 70

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY…………………….. 72

Discussion of Result………………………………………………………… 79

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………… 77

Educational Implication……………………………………………………. 78

Recommendations……………………………………………………………. 79

Limitation of the Study…………………………………………………….. 81

Suggestion of Further Research…………………………………………. 81

Summary of the Study……………………………………………………… 82

References……………………………………………………………………… 85

Appendices…………………………………………………………………….. 90

 

LIST OF TABLES

TABLES                                                  TITLE                                                  Page

  1. The proportion of the male and female students who showed preference to various vocational areas…………………………………………………….. 61
  2. Chi-square analysis of male and female students vocational preferences. 63
  3. The proportion of the urban and rural students who showed preference to various vocational areas…………………………………………………….. 65
  4. Chi-square analysis of urban and rural students vocational preferences   67
  5. Means and standard deviations of the motivational factors of male and female students……………………………………………………………………………. 68
  6. Means and standard deviations of the motivational factors of urban and rural students……………………………………………………………………………. 69

 ABSTRACT

This study sought to examine the motivational factors and vocational preference of secondary school adolescents. Four research questions and two null hypotheses were generated to guide the study. The design of the study was a descriptive survey design. The sample consisted of 349 Senior Secondary School (SSS) III students in the secondary school in Onitsha Education Zone of Anambra State. The instrument used for the study was vocational interest and motivational factor questionnaire (VIMFQ). Means, standard deviation, chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Major findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference between male and female students who showed preferences to various vocational areas; there was a significant difference between urban and rural students who showed preferences to various vocational areas; the male and female students are motivated by external influences to a low extent, rewards/benefits, self expression values and people oriented motivated them in their choice of a vocation to a great extent, the urban students are motivated by external influence to a low extent while rural students are influenced to a great extent; rewards/benefits, self-expression values and people oriented values motivated both urban and rural students to a great extent. Based on these findings, conclusions were drawn and the educational implications were extensively discussed.  Among the recommendations made were that more professional guidance counsellors should be posted to schools to perform functions like providing students with vocational information, helping students to identify their interest, capabilities and abilities in relation to their vocational choices. counsellors should guide the students in selection of school subjects which are related to their area of aspiration than allowing non-professionals to remain in that Post. Teachers should emphasis during their lesson, the career implications of subjects so that students will see how individual subjects relate to existing careers thus increasing their knowledge of occupations.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

In a developing country like Nigeria which is at the verge of changing from a traditionally agricultural country to an industrial one, the choice of a vocation is a complex task. The longer years of apprenticeship to the family trade such as weaving, carving and fishing are being replaced by years of formal education in primary and secondary school with resultant effect that the children may not take up their parents’ trade.

Vocation is an activity, trade or occupation and others constituting a life style expressed in time, energy and activity (Oladele, 2002). It simply refers to a type work or way of life that an individual believes he or she is specially suited for. Vocation can be said to reflect one’s calling to a particular business or profession. It is an occupation to which an individual’s life is committed to and has inherent liking and feeling for the work (Eze, 2010). For the purpose of this study vocation is a profession, occupation, employment by which one earns his living especially one for which he has a period of training in an institution or through apprenticeship.

Occupation was classified into different categories. Classification of occupation is very important to every nation especially a developing nation like Nigeria (Omeje, 2007). He added that people need to have the knowledge and information on national manpower resources, requirements, analysis, trends in employment and unemployment. The occupational category according to Ochiagha (1995) include the following areas, professional occupations (medicine, law, clergy, teaching, counselling, psychology, pharmacy, nursing, engineering), managerial occupation (heads of state, state governors, federal ministers, directors, managers, proprietors) business occupations (accounting, insurance, salesmanship, banking marketing) clerical occupations (cashiers, typists, book keepers, tax collectors, receptionists) agricultural occupations (farmers, farm managers, agricultural extension officers, palm wine tapers and palm harvesters) technological occupations (agriculture and food technicians, engineering and science technicians, air plane technicians) skilled/semiskilled occupations (photography, plumbing works, printing, hair dressing/barking, computer operator).  Apprenticeship occupations (welders, electricians, cabinet makers, vulcanizers, fashion designers, goldsmiths) service occupations (waiters/waitresses, cooks in hotels, security men, firemen, army, naval force, police force, air force) unskilled labourers (farm labourers, cleaners. The choice of a vocation therefore is one of the most important decisions one makes in life.

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