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EFFECTS OF DIALOGIC AND GUIDED DISCOVERY INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT, INTEREST AND RETENTION IN MARKETING IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DELTA STATE

Vocational Technical Education Project Topics & Materials

 EFFECTS OF DIALOGIC AND GUIDED DISCOVERY INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT, INTEREST AND RETENTION IN MARKETING IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DELTA STATE

      TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                                                 ii

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                  iii

DEDICATION                                                                                                                        iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                                    v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                      vi

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                  ix

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                                 x

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                           xi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                               1

Background of the Study                                                                                                     1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                                   13

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                                       14

Significance of the Study                                                                                                    16

Research Questions                                                                                                             19

Hypotheses                                                                                                                           20

Scope of the Study                                                                                                               21

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                    23

Conceptual Framework                                                                                                    24

  • Marketing 24
  • Teaching Method and Techniques                                                                        40
  • Dialogic Instructional Technique 46
  • Guided Discovery Instructional Technique                                                            52
  • Academic Achievement 68
  • Students’ Interest in Learning 71
  • Retention of Learning 74

Theoretical Framework                                                                                                   76

  • McClelland Theory of Achievement Motivation                                                 76
  • Bandura’s Social Learning Theory 78
  • Skinner’s Operant conditioning 80

Related Empirical Studies                                                                                                            82

 

  • Effects of Dialogic Instructional Technique on Students Achievement,

Interest and Retention                                                                                                            82

  • Effects of Guided Discovery Instructional Technique on Students

Achievement, Interest and Retention                                                                      89

Summary of Literature Reviewed                                                                                            100

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                                       103

Design of the Study                                                                                                             103

Area of the Study                                                                                                                 104

Population for the Study                                                                                                     105

Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                                      105

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                          106

Validation of the Instrument                                                                                              107

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                              108

Experimental Procedure                                                                                                     108

Control of Extraneous Variables                                                                                       109

Method of Data Collection                                                                                                 110

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                                    111

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA                        112

Presentation of Analysed Data

Findings of the Study                                                                                                                      128

Discussion of the Findings                                                                                                             131

Re-statement of the Problem                                                                                           138CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION       138          

Summary of Procedure Used                                                                                             141

Major Findings of the Study                                                                                              143

Implications of the Findings                                                                                              145

Conclusion                                                                                                                           147

Limitations of the Study                                                                                                    148

Recommendations                                                                                                              149

Suggestions for Further Study                                                                                           150

REFERENCES                                                                                                                  150                                                                                                                

APPENDICES

 

Appendix A: Summary of WAEC Results in Marketing                                165

Appendix B: Population for the Study                                                              166        Appendix C: Table of Specification for Marketing Achievement Test                   167

Appendix D: Request for Validation of Research Instrument                      168

 

Appendix E: Marking Scheme for Pre-Test for Marketing Achievement

Test (MAT)                                                                                    177

Appendix F: Marketing Interest Inventory (MII)                                                      179 Appendix G:  Training Manual for the Teaching Techniques                      181

Appendix H:  Instructional Techniques Lesson Plans                                    187

            Appendix I: Reliability Result of the Marketing Achievement Test (MAT) 287

Appendix J: Reliability Result of the Marketing Interest Inventory (MII)    288

Appendix K: Results of Data Analysis                                                               289

 

   LIST OF TABLES                                                PAGE

Exposed to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and Lecture

Table 1: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Achievement Scores of Students

Methods in Warehousing Test.                                                                              112

 

Table 2: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Achievement Scores of Students

Exposed to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and Lecture

Methods in Structure and Market Union for Sales of Goods Test                               113

 

Table 3: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Achievement Scores of Students Exposed

to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and Lecture Methods in

Roles of Facilitators Test.                                                                                       114

 

Table 4: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Interest Rating Scores of Students Exposed

to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and  Lecture

Methods in Warehousing Interest Inventory                                                       115

 

Table 5: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Interest Rating Scores of Students Exposed

to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and  Lecture Methods

in Structure and Market Union Interest Inventory.                                             116

 

Table 6: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Interest Rating Scores of Students Exposed

to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and  Lecture Methods

in Roles of Facilitators Interest Inventory.                                                                      117

 

Table 7: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Retention Scores of Students Exposed

to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and  Lecture

Methods in Warehousing Retention of Learning                                                            118

 

Table 8: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Retention Scores of Students Exposed

to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and  Lecture Methods

in Structure and Market Union Retention Test                                                   119

 

Table 9: Pre-test and Post-test Mean Retention Scores of Students Exposed

to Dialogic, Guided Discovery and Lecture Methods

in Roles of Facilitators Retention Test                                                                 120

 

Table 10: Summary of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) for test of

Significance in the Mean Achievement Scores of Students and

Effects of Treatments (Groups) Based on the topics.                                         121

 

Table 11: Summary of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) for test of

Significance in the Mean Interest Scores of Students and Effects of

Treatments (Groups) Based on the Topics in Marketing.                                              125

 

Table 12: Summary of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) for test of

Significance in the Mean Retention Scores of Students and

Effects of Treatments (Groups) Based on the topics.                                         127

 

LIST OF FIGURE

 Abstract

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the Study                                                              76

This study investigated the effects of dialogic and guided discovery instructional techniques on students’ achievement, interest and retention in marketing in senior secondary schools in Delta State. Specifically, Warehousing, Structure and market union for the sale of goods and Roles of facilitators were the Marketing components examined. Nine research questions and nine null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study was carried out using quasi-experimental research design. The population for this study comprised all the 9,194 SS11 students of the 145 public co-educational secondary schools offering marketing in Delta State. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used to select six out of the 145 public senior secondary schools with a total of 307 SS II students offering marketing, which were used for the study. Through balloting, West-end Mixed Secondary School and Zappa Mixed Secondary School were allotted to dialogic technique; Abraka Grammar School and Urhoka Grammar School were allotted to guided discovery technique while Obiaruku Grammar School and Afor Secondary School were allotted to lecture method. The data for the study were cololected using two sets of instruments which are: Marketing Achievement Test (MAT) and Marketing Interest Inventory (MII). The two sets of the instruments were subjected to both face and content validation by five experts. The reliability of the Marketing Achievement Test (MAT) was achieved using Kuder Richardson 21 (KR-21) which yielded a co-efficient of 0.74 while the reliability of the Marketing Interest Inventory (MII) was achieved using Cronbach Alpha reliability technique which yielded a coefficient of 0.82. The data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation for answering the research questions while the hypotheses formulated for the study were tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study showed that dialogic and guided discovery instructional techniques significantly increased students’ academic achievement, interest and retention of learning in Marketing (warehousing, structure and market union and roles of facilitators) in secondary schools in Delta State. Based on the findings of this study, the study recommended among others, that: secondary school teachers of Marketing should be provided with in-service training for teaching skill update in the use of modern and student-centred instructional techniques such as dialogic and guided discovery instruction and that instructional materials to facilitate quality teaching and learning with the modern teaching techniques should be provided by the government and school administrators.

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