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ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT, JOB COMMITMENT AND WORK- FAMILY CONFLICT AMONG WORKING MOTHERS IN UNIVERSITIES IN LAGOS STATE

POLITICAL SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Content Page
Title page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgements v
Abstract iv
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables vii
List of Figures ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background to the Study 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem 4
1.3. Objective of the Study 6
1.4. Research Questions 7
1.5. Hypotheses 7
1.6. Justification for Study 7
1.7. Significance of the Study 8
1.8. Scope of the Study 9
1.9. Operational Definition of Terms 9
1.10. Organization of the Study 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.0. Introduction 11
2.1. Organizations Support and Organizational Policies 12
2.1.1. Organizational Support 12
2.1.2. Organizational Policies 15
2.2. Job Commitment 20
2.2.1. Gender and Job Commitment 23
Content Page
2.3. Working Mothers 24
2.3.1. Working Mothers in Formal and Informal Sectors 25
2.4. Work-Family Conflict 28
2.4.1. Work Related Factors of Work-Family Conflict 31
2.4.2. Family Related Factors of Work-Family Conflict 36
2.4.3. Family –Work Conflict 40
2.4.4. Work Life Balance 41
2.4.5. Coping Strategies in Use by Working Mothers 44
2.4.5.1.External Coping Strategies in Use by Working Mothers 45
2.4.5.2.Internal Coping Strategies in Use by Working Mothers 48
2.5. Theoretical Framework 48
2.5.1. Role Conflict Theory 49
2.5.2. Social Exchange Theory 52
2.6. Gaps in Literature 53

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.0. Introduction 55
3.1. Research Design 55
3.2. Population 55
3.3. Sample size and sampling Technique 56
3.4. Method of Data Collection 58
3.5. Sources of Data Collection 58
3.6. Research Instrument 58
3.7. Validity of the Research Instrument 58
3.8. Reliability of Research Instrument 59
3.9. Method of Data Analysis 59
3.10. Ethical Consideration 59

Content Page
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.0. Introduction 61
4.1. Administration of Research Instruments 61
4.2. Demographic Characteristics 62
4.3. Comparative Data Analysis to Answer Research Question and Test of Hypotheses 72

4.3.1. The relationship Between Organizational Support and Job
Commitment Among working Mothers in Lagos State 72

4.3.2. Interview Analysis on Organizational Support 79
4.4. The Effects of Work- Family Conflict on Job Commitment Among Working Mothers in Lagos State 80

4.4.1. Summary of responses on work-family conflict and job commitment among working mothers 83

4.4.2. Interview Analysis on Job Commitment 87
4.5. Comparative differences between work-family conflicts on working mothers 87
4.5.1. Analysis of Interview on Work-Family Conflict 96
4.6. Research Hypothesis 97
4.6.1. Hypothesis One 97
4.6.2. Interpretation to Hypothesis One 98 4.6.3. Hypothesis Two 98
4.6.4. Interpretation to Hypothesis Two 99

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 101
5.2. Conclusion 103
5.3. Recommendations 105
5.4. Contribution to Knowledge 105
5.5. Suggestion for Further Studies 106
References 108
Appendices

LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
3.1. Number of employees in the two universities in their classifications 56
3.2. Number of respondents and interviews to be conducted 57
3.3. Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient Test 59
4.1. Pattern of administration of research instruments 62
4.2. LASU and Caleb University demographic characteristic 63
4.3.1. Organizational support 73
4.3.2. Summary of responses on organizational support (Q1-5) 75
4.3.3. Comparative data summary implication for research questions one and three 77
4.4.1. Work-family conflict and job commitment among working mothers 81
4.4.2. Summary of respondents pattern of responses to statement (Q6 -10) 83
4.4.3. Comparative data summary for research question two 86
4.5.1. Comparative difference between work-family conflict on working mothers 88
4.5.2. Summary of comparative differences between work-family conflicts on working mothers 91
4.5.3. Comparative data summary for research question four 95
4.6.1. Correlation on organizational support and work-family conflict 98
4.6.2. Correlation on job commitment and work-family conflict 99

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page
1. Respondents’ Ages 65
2. Respondents’ Marital Status 66
3. Respondents’ Highest Educational Qualification 66
4. Respondents’ Number of Years Spent in the Organization 67
5. Respondents’ Number of Children 68
6. Respondents’ Ages of Children 69
7. Respondents’ Number of Children Currently Living with them 70
8. Respondents’ Numbers Hours Spent at Work Daily 71

APPENDICES
1. Questionnaire
2. Post Research Expectations
3. Reliability Test Result
4. Turnitin Result
5. Ethical Approval

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background to the Study
Women in many cultures are seen as basically responsible for taking care of their children and husband. They give birth to children, rear them and provide the necessary comfort for the man. It is believed in most cultural settings especially in Nigeria that the man as head and bread winner should go out to fend for his family while to woman is to treat him as a king when he comes back. Some cultures especially in developing countries still believe that it does not worth training the girl-child in western education. This is because of the archaic notion that a ‘woman’s education ends in the kitchen’. The girl-child of today becomes the mother tomorrow, so the training and preparation given to the girl-child today determines who the mother of tomorrow will be. The holy book, the Bible in Genesis 3: 16 says that the desire of a woman shall be of her husband and he shall rule over her. Therefore, many people see a woman as somebody that should not be ambitious and does not have a life of her own. Women were seen as second class citizens and as such were not given their rightful position in the society. In some organizations, they were not employed into some key positions because they were seen as being weak.
Women were predominately house wives until the World War II, when they were needed to fill the gap in the industries (Acemoglu, Autor and Davis 2004). Even after the war, when men came back to the industries, women continued to be engaged in organizations. Again the western education of the girl-child has brought women to the limelight. It became obvious that women could favourably compete with their male counterparts. However, the facelift in the representation of women in the different walks of life comes at a high price and sacrifice paid by mothers. The responsibility of taking care of the home, husband and children is seen as the sole responsibility of the woman in many cultural settings today. This gives the woman more responsibilities than necessary. The economic and social changes in the contemporary environment have brought additional responsibilities and a new dimension to the roles played by women.
This change in the predominant role of women in the society also has great impact on their husbands. In Africa, before the education and entrance of women into different careers, some house chores were the exclusive preserve of women. Unfortunately, times are changing, in most homes; some men now take up those responsibilities in order to keep the home moving. Although, this is not still accepted in some cultures but it cannot be compared with the situation before the twenty first century.

 

 

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