TITTLE PAGE                                                                                                                       i

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                                               ii

CERTIFICATION PAGE                                                                                                     iii

DEDICATION                                                                                                                       iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                                   v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                       vi

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                 ix

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                               x

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                           xi


Background of the Study                                                                                                       1

Statement of the Problem                                                                                                       6

Purpose of the Study                                                                                                              6

Significance of the Study                                                                                                       7

Research Questions                                                                                                                 9

Hypotheses                                                                                                                             9

Scope of the Study                                                                                                                 10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                      11

Conceptual Framework                                                                                                       11

Teaching and Female Teachers                                                                                               12

Concept of Clothing and Wardrobe Management                                                                 13

Theoretical Framework                                                                                                        27

Modesty Theory                                                                                                                      27

Adornment or Decoration Theory                                                                                          28

Expectancy Violation Theory                                                                                                 29

 Related Empirical Studies                                                                                                   30

Summary of Reviewed Literature                                                                                       37

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY                                                                         39

Design of the Study                                                                                                                39

Area of the Study                                                                                                                   39

Population for the Study                                                                                                        40

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                                          40

Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                               41

Validation of the Instrument                                                                                                  42

Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                                   42

Method of Data Collection                                                                                                     42

Method of Data Analysis                                                                                                       43


Research Question 1                                                                                                               44

Research Question 2                                                                                                               46

Research Question 3                                                                                                               48

Research Question 4                                                                                                               50

Research Question 5                                                                                                               52

Research Question 6                                                                                                               54

Hypothesis 1                                                                                                                           56

Hypothesis 2                                                                                                                           57

Hypothesis 3                                                                                                                           59

Hypothesis 4                                                                                                                           60

Hypothesis 5                                                                                                                           62

Findings of the Study                                                                                                             63

Discussion of Findings                                                                                                           68


Restatement of the Problem                                                                                                   72

Summary of Procedures Used                                                                                                            73

Summary of Major Findings                                                                                                   74

Implications of the Study                                                                                                       76

Conclusion                                                                                                                              77

Recommendations                                                                                                                  77

Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                             78

References                                                                                                                             79

Appendices                                                                                                                            85

Appendix A:   Request for Validation of Instrument                                                            85

Appendix B:   Questionnaire                                                                                                  86

Appendix C:   Focus Group Discussion Guide                                                                      91

Appendix D:   Determination of Reliability of the Instrument                                              92

Appendix E:    Analysis of Mean, Standard Deviation and T-test                                         95


Table                                                                                                                                     Page

  1. Mean ratings and Standard Deviation of responses of female secondary

school teachers in Plateau State on how they plan their wardrobe                             44

  1. Mean ratings and Standard Deviation of responses of female secondary

school teachers in Plateau State on how they organize their wardrobe                      46

  1. Mean ratings and Standard Deviation of responses of female secondary

school teachers in Plateau State on how they implement their wardrobe                   48

  1. Mean ratings and Standard Deviation of responses of female secondary

school teachers in Plateau State on how they evaluate their wardrobe                      50

  1. Mean ratings and Standard Deviation of responses of female secondary

school teachers in Plateau State on the challenges they encounter in

managing their wardrobe content                                                                               52

  1. Mean ratings and Standard Deviation of responses of female secondary

school teachers in Plateau State on the possible solutions to challenges encountered in managing their wardrobe content                                                      54

  1. T-test Analysis of the Mean Ratings of Rural and Urban Female Secondary

School Teachers on wardrobe planning practices                                                      56

  1. T-test Analysis of the Mean Ratings of Rural and Urban Female Secondary

School Teachers on wardrobe organization practices                                                57

  1. T-test Analysis of the Mean Ratings of Rural and Urban Female Secondary

School Teachers on wardrobe implementation practices                                           59

  1. T-test Analysis of the Mean Ratings of Rural and Urban Female Secondary

School Teachers on wardrobe evaluation practices                                                   61

  1. T-test Analysis of the Mean Ratings of Rural and Urban Female Secondary

School Teachers on the problems they encounter in wardrobe management             62

List of Figure

Figure 1:   Schematic Diagram on wardrobe management of female secondary school

teachers in plateau state                                                                                        26


The major purpose of the study was to investigate wardrobe management practices of female secondary school teachers in Plateau State. Specifically the study determined wardrobe planning practices of female secondary school teachers, ways female secondary school teachers organize their wardrobe content, ways female secondary school teachers implement their wardrobe content, criteria female secondary school teachers evaluate their wardrobe content, challenges encountered by female secondary school teachers in planning their wardrobe content and possible solutions to challenges encountered by female secondary school teachers in their wardrobe management. Six research questions were developed and five null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05level of significance. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and was carried out in Plateau State of Nigeria.The population was 3310 female secondary school teachers in Plateau State with three Senatorial Zones. The sample for this study consisted of a total of 357 female secondary school teachers. The sample size was determined using Yaro-Yamane formula for a finite population. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire and a focus group discussion guide (FGDG) developed by the researcher from literature based on the objectives of the study. The questionnaire was structured on a four-point rating scale of Strongly Agreed (SA), Agreed (A), and Disagreed (D) with numerical values of 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively. The instrument was subjected to face-validation by three experts from the Department of Vocational Teacher Education (VTE), University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Each validate was served with a copy of the instrument to ascertain the clarity, correctness and suitability of the items of the instrument. The researcher used their corrections, comments, suggestions, and amendments to produce the final copy of the instrument. To establish the reliability of the instrument, a pilot study was conducted. The instrument was trial tested using 20 female secondary school teachers in Abuja which is different from the area of the study. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to establish the internal consistency of the instrument and it yielded the overall reliability coefficients of 0.82. The researcher administered and collected the instrument with the help of research assistants. 357 copies of the questionnaire were returned duly completed and formed the basis of analysis FGDG was collected and reported. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions that guided the study while t-test statistic was used to test hypothesis five at 0.05 level of significance. The finding of the study showed among others that, female secondary school teachers in Plateau State plan their wardrobe through identifying their clothing needs, taking inventory of clothes no longer worn and those that need repair, planning for fashion clothes that are responsive to quality time. The finding of the study showed that, female secondary teachers organize, implement and evaluate their wardrobe content. The finding of the study from the test of hypotheses among others showed that urban and rural female secondary school teachers differ significantly in their (p<0.05) opinion on wardrobe planning practices in Plateau State. It was found that respondents from urban and rural female secondary schools teachers did not differ significantly in their (p>0.05) opinion on wardrobe implementation practices in Plateau State. It was recommended among others that Curriculum planners should include dress code for teachers, so that they can be dressing very well to school. Professional bodies like HERAN and HETAN should place more emphasis on dress code to work during conferences seminars and workshops for lecturers, teachers and students of home-economists and Home economics courses should include dress code as a topic in the curriculum.



Background of Study

Clothing is any material for covering human body and it is worn for various reasons which include protection of the body, fashion, adornment and self-esteem. Anyakoha (2015) maintain of that clothing includes clothes, accessories, hairdo, make-up, shoes and others. They further stress that clothing is anything placed on the body to adorn, protect or communicate intents. Anyakoha and Nwadi (2010), further scored or underlined the fact that clothing is an essential part of any human being and should be capable of protecting the body, maintaining modesty and adornment. Igbo (2008) also pointed out that clothing is an important area of personal satisfaction, protection and source of social identification for every right thinking individual.

The primary function of clothing is protection which implies defence of the body. People everywhere put on dress to protect the body from extreme cold and from injury during accidents. Hence clothing is seen as a buffer between people and their environment shielding them from harmful elements both physical and psychological (Anyakoha 2015). Igbo (2013) noted that people wear clothes to protect their bodies from severe climatic condition and injuries. The author further stressed that people who live in temperate regions, like Eskimos use special climatic clothes as major tool to withstand the harsh environmental conditions, clothes are to protect people from intensive heat, rainfall, harmattan and so on.

The use of clothes for protection had many modifications and varies extremely among the people of the world. Protection against the elements of physical hazards as well as against enemies, Balter (2009) noted that clothes are worn to protect the body from physical harms such as thorns, insect bites, sun burn and from job hazards by wearing overalls, space suites and laboratory coats. Psychological security involves the need of clothing for individual powers. The primary function of clothing of early individuals have beliefs in the spiritual forces to cause floods, droughts, superstition, fear of the unseen, belief in evil spirits and demons as well as luck have been responsible for the use of certain garments, jewellery and other body clothing.

Clothing conveys much about a personality. It shows whether a person is responsible, happy or sad. Clothing is a means of expression (Igbo, 2013). The impression or image created about a person’s mode of dressing can either be good or bad, right or wrong but clothing certainly has an impact on a personality hence accountants and lawyers insist on appropriate dressing. Agbo (2008) asserted that clothing and personal appearance do have an effect on success at work or in school. The author added that regardless of one’s professional field of endeavour, clothing remains unchanged and crucial for successful living.

Clothing can be used for various purposes or reasons. Marshal Jackson, Stanley, Kefgen and Touchie 2005 attempted to explain the various motivations or reasons why people wear clothes. The authors stated that clothes are worn among all people for six common reasons; protection, modesty, occupational identity, attraction, social status and traditional identity. Four major theories have been advanced to explain the reasons behind individuals clothing choices and decisions; namely protection, modesty, immodesty and adornment theories. Among all these theories the use of clothing for adornment/aesthetic satisfaction occupies prime place (Marshal, Jackson, Stanley, Kefan and Tochie-Specht 2000). For clothing to be meaningful and serve its purpose, the person involved must engage in adequate planning, proper utilization, appropriate maintenance and evaluation of clothing materials. These conscious activities constitute wardrobe management.

Wardrobe comprises of clothing articles owned/accumulated, used and stored by an individual. Anyakoha, (2015) defined wardrobe as several dressing attires owned by an individual. Ohwvoriote and Ugeru (2002) also consider wardrobe as the total collection of articles of clothing belonging to a person, various individuals and groups. Many factors influence personal wardrobes. Such factors include age, social status, profession among others. Teaching is one of the occupations that should influence wardrobe requirements and maintenance. The wardrobe management of female teachers requires special attention because they need to maintain good personal appearance. Hence, the clothing needs of a female teacher during her service period require careful management in order to have suitable and relevant wardrobe contents. Since wardrobe is important in enhancing individual appearance and personality especially in work place, they need to adopt proper wardrobe management.