BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Modern organizations operate in a global competitive and an ever-changing environment. They lose their effectiveness and competitiveness if they follow the traditional way of management. These organizations are expected to apply new solutions to the whole management system. The methods of management (Lean Management, Outsourcing, Spin Off, Agile Management, Just in time…) are to make the organizations more flexible, so as to quickly and painlessly adapt to the new market requirements and expectations which result in organizational growth (Grzybowska, 2005: 976)
Thus new trends in changes management appear. Only yesterday, change was perceived as a risk. At the moment change is regarded as an opportunity. Only yesterday a good idea for company operation could be given by a specialist. Now, a good idea may come from various sources. Eventually, change itself is subject to changes. Few organizations may perceive change as an example of disruption of otherwise peaceful world. Too many things are changing too fast for the managers of any organization to afford to be calm (Robbins, 1997: 719).
Changes exist in both the external and internal environments. To be successful in dynamic environments, organizations must be willing to expend considerable amounts of energy in examining fundamental questions to the organization. In the last half century, there has been great interest in the process of planned change and the role of individuals in creating change. This is described in three phases: unfreezing, the stage during which a person becomes ready to learn or acquire a new behavior, perhaps by recognizing the ineffectiveness of a current behavior or by learning about the benefits that would accrue if the new behavior were implemented, changing itself, which will involve a trial period during which the person familiarizes him or herself with the new behavior and refreezing which occurs as the new behavior becomes habitual or ingrained with the individual. Change is an even greater reality in contemporary life; it is occurring at an accelerated pace, and there is almost no likelihood of slowing the pace of change. No longer is it possible to focus on “business as usual.” As organizational environments exert pressure for change, organizations must adjust if they are to survive and prosper. Most firms desire growth in order to prosper, not just to survive. The challenge for today’s managers is to learn to manage change effectively for organizational growth. (Westover, 2010: 885)
Workers at all levels of an organization, be they top levels, junior levels, or operatives, recognize that change is inevitable. However, the successful implementation of organizational change in response to changes in an organization can be one of the greatest challenges top-level leaders face. Regardless of how far-seeing and meticulously planned organizational change may be, it will not be effectively implemented unless it is communicated to an organization’s staff in such a way that resistance is overcome, fears are assuaged, confusion is minimized, and buy-in by all affected individuals is secured (Gordon, 2006: 224).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM