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MANAGING CHANGE THROUGH PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

Business Administration & Management Project Topics

ABSTRACT

Change is an inevitable part of human beings, the institution they established as well as their environment, climate, economy and politics. Interestingly however, most people are hardly ever ready for changes they know must occur.

The research work has revealed that in spite of the inevitability of change, still some members of the organizations are insensitive. It was discovered that employees’ willingness to adopt change as well as their participation in the change process among others are some of the parameter that enhance effective management of change. With this in turn fear and mistrust is eliminated and resistance reduced to the minimum. It is therefore recommended that for any organization to remain in business it must anticipate change and in order to manage the change effectively, there must be strategies in place that will integrate the employees to the change process and reduce resistance to the barest minimum in order to achieve better and improved overall performance.

It was conclusively deduced that managing change is a dynamic process. Which required being constantly tuned in to what is happening around and monitoring the process very carefully. On the basis of this determines the effectiveness of an executive and his ability to create and manage change.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE – –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –     i

CERTIFICATION-    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –    ii

DEDICATION- –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –   iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT-     –       –       –       –       –       –       –   iv

ABSTRACT-     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –    v

TABLE OF CONTENT-     –       –       –       –       –       –       –   vi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0   Background of the Study-        –       –       –       –       –       –    1

1.1   Statement of the problem –      –       –       –       –       –    2

1.2   Objectives of the Study-   –       –       –       –       –       –    3

1.3   Research Questions-        –       –       –       –       –       –       –    4

1.4   Hypothesis-     –       –       –       –    – –       –       –       –    5

1.5   Scope and Limitation of the Study- –       –       –       –    6

1.6   Definition of Terms- –       –       –       –       –       –       –    7

References-     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  13

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

2.0   Introduction-   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  14

2.1   Concept of Change- –       –       –       –       –       –       –  17

2.2   Types of Change-     –       –       –       –       –       –       – 19

2.3   Why Change?- –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –  21

2.4   Reaction to Change-        –       –       –       –       –       –       –  21

2.5   The Process of Change-   –       –       –       –       –       –  30

2.6   Concepts of Managing Change through Performance Management 37

2.6.21 Performance Management-   –       –       –       –       –    38

2.6.2 The Performance Management Cycle-     –       –       –    38

2.6.3 Potential Advantages of Performance Management-        –    39

2.7   How Performance Management may contribute to Organizational Change      39

2.8   Coping with Change-               –       –       –       –       –       –    44

2.8.1        Self Esteem, Performance, Stress and Change-       –       –    45

2.8.2        Change and Self Esteem-                –       –       –       –       –    45

2.8.3        The Coping Cycle-   –       –       –       –       –       –       –    46

2.9   Guiding Principle for Managing Change- –       –       –    48

2.10 Summary of the review of the related Literature-     –    52

References-     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –    54

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.0   Introduction-   –       –       –       –       –       –       –            55

3.1   Sources of Data–     –       –       –       –       –       –       –    55

3.2   Identification of Population-    –       –       –       –       –    56

3.2.1        Determination of Sample Size- –       –       –       –       –    57

3.2.2        Data Collection-      –       –       –       –       –       –       –    58

3.3   Data Analysis- –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –    59

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

4.0   Introduction-   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –    60

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

5.0   Summary of the Findings-               –       –       –       –       –    73

5.1   recommendations-   –       –       –       –       –       –       –    74

5.2   Conclusions-   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –    77

Bibliography – –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –    79

Appendix A Questionnaire-    –       –       –       –       –       –    82

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Change is a re-occurring demand in our daily existence and takes place from time to time as innovations and inventions are introduced to meet up with current trends.

According to Stewart (1996) the future is uncertain and any particular or specific change will generate other changes. It is well known and widely accepted that organizations and business enterprises like banks, insurance companies, among others are in existence to produce, make profits and develop.

A change is any deviation from a normal situation and its management requires specific skills. There is nothing as certain as change.

Cardinal Newman once said “to live is to change, to live a long life is to change many times. We experience several changes in our course of development from childhood to adulthood. Such changes are accepted as challenges and opportunities.

According to Megginson et al (1989: 55) change is the term of the famous adage that nothing is certain but death and taxes. Everyday people experience significant change in their lives and careers. These changes may involve accepting a promotion at work, transferring to new office or even starting a new family. The way people react to change differs. One will likely welcome changes which provides one with options and resist changes that give you no choice.

Change and change management are concepts that have come to assume greater importance in the discussions of the executive of most companies. This is partly born out of the fact that the only thing certain in life is change. Mokikan (1996:96). In view of this it is importance that individuals, group and corporate bodies must consciously plan for managing change if the rewards from it are to be maximized. Since change is something we have to live with, the better we are able to manage its introduction and consequences the better for all.

If an organization refused to change such organization will be changed, many organization have collapsed because they refused to change or manage change when it occurred.

Forces of change are also known as change drivers or change initiators. They can either be external or internal. The external drivers are those forces that are outside the control of management has little control over the; they have a greater effect on organizational change. No organization can operate in vacuum. An organization must interact with its external environment if it’s to survive. The organization’s physical, financial and human resources are obtained from outside and the clients and customers for the organisation’s products and services are also there.

Internal change forces are pressures for change, which come from within the organization for which reasonable measure of control. These may include the appointment of new chief executive officer, new organization objectives, managerial policies, technologies, employees attitudes, operation start ups, business relocation, mergers and acquisitions.

Both external and internal forces for change are not found in isolation. They are interrelated more often than not, external change drivers create internal change is important, the more important is its management, when change is properly managed, the result can be deadly because of the possibilities of resistance among people. To successfully manage change one needs to understand basic concepts and strategies to build commitment and   acceptance to change in all levels of the organization.

Roger plant in his work titled “managing change and making it stick” observed that there is a wide range of typical causes of resistance. These are rarely simple causes and effect situations, and resistance is usually a complex mix of historic, factual and emotional issues, which are not always easy to disentangle. He listed the following as some of those most frequently sources of resistance to change and unwillingness to engage in new behaviour.

  • Fear of the unknown
  • Lack of information
  • Misinformation
  • Historical factors
  • Threat to core skills and competence
  • Threat to power base
  • No perceived benefits
  • Low trust organizational climate
  • Poor relationship
  • Fear of failure
  • Fear of looking stupid
  • Reluctance to experiment
  • Custom bound
  • Reluctance to let go
  • Strong peer group norms.

Managing change is a persistent challenge which must be met in order to promote progressive organizational performance. It  is a personal management skill which involves the whole range of management task of planning, operating, controlling, management development, communicating, bargaining etc. change is a process and not a decision to act.

And since this is so, one of the key factors for successful management of change is preempting the problem one may have to monitor the market environment and that is doing environmental scanning. Competition can come from the areas you least expect. As one scans the environment there is need to analyze the consequences.

 

1.1   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

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