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ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS AND IMPACT ON ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

Business Administration & Management Project Topics

ABSTRACT

Organizational Politics queues from the politics of daily experience as they desire to acquire power over others. Power itself is the ability to influence others to do something whether or not the follower likes it. In the organization, it takes many forms, but not with the bicker that follow political officers, but with the scheme that lend them to the quest to outwit the incumbent occupant of a post. In practice, it looks very virulent, and so unattractive. However, to the enterprise it gives room for competition which midwives innovation. Such atmosphere cannot be said to be antagonistic. So, to an outsider, organizational politics is a dirty game, but to the company, it has inherent advantages. In this research, we have used both primary and secondary data. It is an evaluative research design with in-depth analysis on the modus operandi of organizational politics in both industrial and services sectors. Some of the recommendations are: Activities of employees should be made to contribute to goals harmonizing divergent views; management should not see organizational politics as threats to continuity of the business, but should do everything to address the complaints of employees; there should be laid down steps to employee’s discipline, and not based on sentiments.  Grapevine should not be discarded but harmonized for effectiveness; organizational structure should be made to contribute positively to organizational politics. In conclusion/findings, we adduce that since organizational politics is not entirely condemned, it should be channeled to such productive ends such that the organization stands to gain from its practice at any time.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…………………………………………………….…………..…i

Certification………………………………………………………..……….ii

Dedication…………………………………………………………..…….iii

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………iv

Abstract…………………………………………………………………… v

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study……………..……………………….……… 1
  • Statement of Problem…………………………………….………… 3
  • Objectives of the Study ……..…………………..…….……..…….. 3
  • Research Questions ….……………………………………………. 4
  • The Significance of the Study………………………………………. 4
  • Scope of the Study …………………………………………………. 5
  • Limitations of the Study………………..…………………………… 5
  • Definition of Terms………………………………………………… 6

References……………………………………………………..……. 7

CHAPTER TWO                                                             

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Introduction………………………………………………………….. 8

2.1     Politics and Promotions………………………………………….……12

2.2     Politics and Production Pressures………………………………..…14

2.3     Politically in the Government Hierarchy…………………………… 20

2.4     Psychology of Social Behavior…………………………….……… 21

2.4.1  Socialization of the Individual: The work of Scatter 1959……….…21

2.4.2  The Desire for Affiliation: The Work of Geezers

and Walsh 1958………………………………………………….     23

  • Perception of Persons: The Work of Sarnoft

And Zimbardo1961……………………………..…………………   25

2.4.4  Forming Impressions of People: The Work of Asch, 1946………..  28

2.4.5  Use of Stereotypes: The Work of Karlins 1969……………………  31

2.4.6  Nature and Measurement of Attitude: The Work of

Lambert and Lambert 1964…………………………….…………    33

2.5     Performance Evaluation and Organization Politics………………..  34

2.6     Organizational Politics as Seen By Thomas and Rogers………….   39

2.7     Organizational Politics as Seen by Stephen P. Robbins……….….   42

2.8     Organizational Politics and Power play in an Organization………   43

2.9     How to Manage Organizational Politics in An Organization ……..  54

References…………………………………………………………. 57

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0     Introduction…………………………………………………….…  60

3.1     Research Design…………………………………………………… 60

3.2     Sources of Data…………………………………………….………60

3.3     Population of the Study………………………………………..….. 61

3.4     Sample size Determination………………………………………… 61

3.5     Validation of the Research Instrument……………………………. 62

3.6     Reliability of Research Instrument…………………………..….…62

3.7     Method of Data Analysis…………………………………………..62

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

  • Research Analysis………………………………………………….64
    • Research Question 1……………………………………………….64
    • Research Question 2……………………………………………….66
    • Research Question 3…………………………………………….…67
    • Research Question 4……………………………………………….68
    • Research Question 5……………………………………………….70
    • Research Question 6……………………………………………….71
  • Presentation………………………………………………………. 76

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Summary of Findings……………………………………………… 77
  • Discussion of Results……………………………………………… 77
  • Conclusion………………………………………………………… 79
  • Recommendations……………………………………………….. 79
  • Suggestions for further studies………………………….…………. 81

Bibliography   ……………………………………………………… 82

Appendix ………………………………………………………….. 84

Questionnaires……………………………………………………..  85

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Politics seeks to govern a group of people with rules or regulations. It is the whole system directed at acquiring power to rules. This process of acquiring power is affected by a combination of many processes: democracy, autocracy, military, nepotism, plutocracy, and aristocracy, anarchy.

Organizational politics earns from the general knowledge of political culture in the outside society. It includes all that employee does to rise from one step to another that effect promotions and all the policies guiding employee rewards and discipline right from the day he is recruited to the day he leaves the organization.

According to Robbins (1990:64), it is a continuous process that sees employees develop personal tricks on reeling with employees, maneuvering his way to the top echelon of power. According to him, it is a game of intrigues meted against compatriots, demeaning them before higher authorities or favor.

This makes organizational polities seems as warlike phenomenon. But according to Otanka (1995:706), it is not all negative. In fact he notes that it has more positive contribution to the organization. He observes that it spurs every employee to be at alert to contribution his best to the growth of the business for appreciation so glaring to be denied by the higher authorities and everybody within the organization.

According to Witlessly (1936:19), organizational politics is the game of who gets what, how, when and where in any enterprise. It tries to pitch one employee against another. Organizational politics is the network of interaction by which power is acquired, transferred and exercised.  Dalton (1966:15-21) reveals areas for political tension in any organization;

–        Long run vs short run politics and programme

–        Labour vs management interactions

–        Struggles for promotions

–        Distribution of rewards

–        Interaction of organization doctrine. From these, we see that organizational politics tries to enable employees to be dynamic and appreciate a particular position, do all in their arsenal to get at it. It is left for the incumbent occupant to desire to shift upwards or downwards. This he does by his character. It pitches an employee against the other in ideas and performance; labor against management in polities as well as in nature of politics and programmes of action and rewards.

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Many perceive organizational politics as a bad omen for any enterprise. They do this in line with the nature of intrigues that largely follow them.

 

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