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ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AS A STRATEGIC TOOL FOR RE-ENGINEERING (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS LIMITED (NITEL)

Business Administration & Management Project Topics

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page:        …     …     …     …     …     …     …     …     …     i

Certification:    …     …     …     …     …     …     …     …     ii

Dedication:      …     …     …     …     …     …     …     …     iii

Acknowledgement:   …     …     …     …     …     …     …     iv

Table of Content:     …     …     …     …     …     …     …     v

Abstract:  …     …     …     …     …     …     …     …     …     vii

CHAPTER ONE:      INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study: …     …     …     …     …     1
  • Statement of the Problem: …     …     …     …     …     9
  • Objectives of Study: … …     …     …     …     …     11
  • Research Question: …     …     …     …     …     …     12
  • Research Hypothesis: …     …     …     …     …     13
  • Significance of the Study: …     …     …     …     …     16
  • Scope of the Study: …     …     …     …     …     …     17
  • Limitation of the Study: …     …     …     …     …     17
  • Definition of Terms: … …     …     …     …     …     18

References:      …     …     …     …     …     …     …     21

 

CHAPTER TWO:      LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Introduction: …     …     …     …     …     …     …     22

2.1   Definition of Organization:       …     …     …     …     22

2.2   The Theoretical Framework:    …     …     …     …     25

2.3   Concept of Organizational Development: …     …     28

2.4   The Organization Development Process:  …     …     33

2.5   The Organization Development Interventions

Strategies:        …     …     …     …     …     …     …     35

2.6   Limitations of Organization Development:       …     …     40

2.7   Industries that have used Organization Development

in the Process Re-engineering the Organization:      41

2.8   Total Quality Management (TQM) and

Re-engineering:        …     …     …     …     …     …     …     43

2.9   Summary of the Review:  …     …     …     …     …     44

References:      …     …     …     …     …     …     …     46

CHAPTER THREE:  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Introduction: …     …     …     …     …     …     …     48
  • Research Design: …     …     …     …     …     …     48
  • Sources of Data: …     …     …     …     …     …     49
  • Population of Study: …     …     …     …     …     …     50
  • Sample Size Determination: …     …     …     …     50
  • Research Instruments Used: …     …     …     …     52
  • Method of Data Analysis: … …     …     …     …     52

References:      …     …     …     …     …     …     …     53

CHAPTER FOUR:    DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • Introduction: …     …     …     …     …     …     …     54
  • Presentation and Analysis: …     …     …     …     55
  • Test of Hypotheses: …     …     …     …     …     …     62

CHAPTER FIVE:     DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS,                                                   CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Discussion of Findings: …     …     …     …     …     79
  • Summary of Findings: …     …     …     …     …     79
  • Conclusion: …     …     …     …     …     …     …     84
  • Recommendations: …     …     …     …     …     …     84
  • Area for Further Research: …     …     …     …     86

Bibliography:   …     …     …     …     …     …     …     88

Appendix I:      …     …     …     …     …     …     …     92

 

ABSTRACT

This research work is a study on how to re-engineer ailing Nigeria Telecommunications Limited (NITEL) through organizational development process.  The study has some of the following as the objectives:

  • To match the characteristic problem-solving qualities of organizational development in order to re-engineer the activities of Nigerian Telecommunications Limited.
  • To identify the factors which make organization development the most appropriate management technique to use in re-engineering the activities of NITEL
  • To show how the flexible and adaptable nature of organization development can meet the necessary requirements for re-engineering.

The researcher used both primary and secondary data to achieve the comprehensiveness of the study. To determine the sample size of the study, the researcher used the Bourley’s rule and formula to test for hypotheses.  Chi-square (X2) statistical technique was employed.  The key findings, recommendation and conclusion of the study shows that the organization development process is more flexible and adaptable to changing business environment than the bureaucratic power structure. The researcher therefore recommends in conclusion that NITEL by changing its work methods and organization may be more productive and efficient in the business of telecommunication.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In the business world, there are high levels of uncertainty in the operative activities of business organization.  These uncertainties came to be because of changes in the business environment due to limited resources and the misapplication of the required management technique.

It is noteworthy to know that any business plan, policy or strategy without due recourse to proper research to current and future behaviour, structure and changes of the market forces in its industry is a disaster in the making.  That is therefore the reason necessary for organization to study their own management, economic and technological structures in order to predict future changes and the effect they will have on their operational activities. It is therefore in this wise that I delve into carrying out a study on how the Nigerian Telecommunication Limited (NITEL) could through its strategic formulation and implementation of the situational management technique of organizational development strategies achieve its target objectives.

Telecommunication is an essential infrastructure and key ingredient for promoting rapid socio-economic and political development of any nation. It is an indispensable system in effective business operations and in the times of national emergency or natural disaster.  Therefore, because of its vital nature to any nation, or economy, the telecommunications system must be universally accessible and cost-effective. In order that Nigeria should be counted relevant, he must as a matter of urgency properly organize and manage strategically her telecommunication system to be functional and efficient.

According to the National Telecommunications policy write-up of September, 2000, telecommunications facilities in Nigeria were direct established in 1886 by the British Colonial Administration for discharging administrative functions rather than the socio-economic development at the country. The policy report stated that the total number of telephone lines at independence in 1960 were only eighteen thousand, seven hundred and twenty four for a population estimated at about forty million people.  The data above however indicated that Nigeria then was having a tele-density of approximately are telephone time per two thousand people.  As at that time, the telephone network consisted of one hundred and twenty one exchanges of which one hundred and sixteen were analogue (magnet type) and only time were automatic.

Basically, between 1960 and 1985, the Nigerian Telecommunications sector consisted of the departments of posts and telecommunications (P & T) in charge of the internal communications network and a limited liability company, the Nigerian External Telecommunication (NET) limited responsible for the external telecommunications services.

The Nigerian Telecommunication Limited (NITEL) is the Federal Government owned company that provides public network telecommunication services in Nigeria.  Set up in 1985 as an amalgam of the telecommunication vision of the defunct P & T department and the Nigerian External Telecommunications Limited (NET). NITEL has a staff strength of about fourteen thousand (14000).

It operates a three tier organization structure ie Corporate Headquarters, six zonal and thirty-nine (39).  Territorial administrations; a system that enhances decentralization. The six zones of NITEL include Lagos Zone, North-West Zone, North-East Zone, South-West, South-East and Central Zones with their headquarters Lagos, Kaduna, Bauchi, Ibadan, Enugu and Abuja respectively.  Each state of the federation represents a territory except Lagos that has three territories.

Fully commercialized under the privatization and communication policy of the Federal Government, NITEL limited is committed to the provision of efficient, reliable and cost effective telecommunications services nationally and internationally. This set of objectives has been the guiding principle on which the company’s operations are based.

Specifically, the Nigerian Telecommunication Limited (NITEL) was a bureaucratic and a monopolistic structure with all its attendant red-tapisms.  Evidences from studies carried out by situational management researchers the world over have shown that bureaucratic structures with its inflexibility to adapt readily to the dynamic nature, purpose and changes in today’s business environment cannot function well. Hence as a result of the Nigerian telecommunication industry’s inability to research into its current and future behaviour of market forces in her industry in this era of rapid technological development, she was characterized by serious short-falls between planned targets and their realization.  Secondly, poor management processes, lack of accountability and transparency, and low level of executive capacity move also diagnosed as the factors which brought about the under capacity utilization of the organization.

It is worthy of note that at the end of 1985, the installed switching capacity of the Nigerian Telecommunication industry was well about two hundred thousand (200000) lines as against the policy planned target of four hundred and sixty thousand (460000) telephone lines.  Translated, this means that the teledensity was about one telephone line to about four hundred and forty (440) people.   This telephone per capita is far below the targeted one telephone line to one hundred (100) people recommended by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) for developing countries.  Even as things stand, the quality of telephone services was unreliable, congested, expensive, customer unfriendly and largely unsatisfactory.

From the foregoing, in January 1985, the Federal Government under General Ibrahaim Babangida splited the then posts and Telecommunications into postal and telecommunication divisions.  The main objective according to the Federal Government for establishing NITEL was to harmonize the planning and coordination of the internal and external telecommunication services., rationalize investments in telecommunication development and provide accessible, efficient and affordable services.  However, since its inception in 1985, NITEL has experienced modest development in the Nigeria telecommunications industry until recent times.

Records by the National Council on Privatization (NCP) indicated that as at the year 2001, NITEL has a public telephone network of about seven hundred thousand (700,000) lines capacity out of which four hundred thousand (400,000) were connected.  Consequently, with Nigeria’s then estimated population of one hundred and ten million (110) people, how teledensity was one telephone to about two hundred and twenty five (225) people which is still below the recommended ITU one telephone line to one hundred (100) people in developing countries like Nigeria. In this wise therefore, Nigeria lags behind comparable to even less endowed African Countries.

In a bid to tackle the observed shortcomings of the NITEL then, the process of deregulation of the industry was initiated with the establishment of the Nigeria Communications Commission (NCC) by the Decree 75 of 1992 the objectives of the Nigeria Communications.  Commission (NCC) include:-

  1. The creation of a regulatory environment to facilitate the supply of telecommunications services and facilities.
  2. The facilitation of the entry of private entrepreneurs into the telecommunications industry.
  3. The promotion of fair business competition and efficient market conduct among all the players in the telecommunications industry.

It should therefore be noted that since the inauguration of NCC in July 1993, it has set out guidelines for private sector participation and issued licenses to a number of companies for the following telecommunications, undertakings;

  1. Provision and operations of public payphones.
  2. Provision and operation of telephones
  3. Provisions of value added network services
  4. Repair, cabling and maintenance of telecommunications facilities.
  5. Provision and operation of private network links employing cable, radio communication or satellite within Nigeria.

However, in spite of all the measures that were put in place in order to address the many problems of NITEL the industry continued to experience business failure as a result of under capacity utilization non-cost effective service provision and lower quality services.  The question that comes to mind now is what are the problems militating against NITEL’s organizational development?

 

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

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