Business Administration & Management Project Topics




An organization whether a business or an industrial enterprise, needs for its growth further development, contrivance, material and men (Alvares, 1997:10). It is on effective combination and devetatiling of these factors that the success or failure of an organization depends (Mohran etal 1997:132). However, the management of men is very important and challenging because it is a job of administering a social system (Mohran etal 1997:132). As Oliver Sheldon put it, no industry can rendered efficient so long as the basic fact remains unrecognized that it is principally human. It is not a mass of machines and technical processes, but a body of men. The management of men is a dynamic task because of the dynamic nature of men. It is not a complex of matter, but a complex of humanity. If manpower is properly utilized, it proves as dynamic motive force for running an enterprise at its optimum results and also work as an elicit for maximum individual and group satisfaction in relation to the work performed.

Since every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to high levels of performance, and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential for achieving organizational objectives.

Those organizations that are able to acquire, develop, stimulate, with deep outstanding workers will be both effective and efficient (Ulrich; 1997:256). Those organizations that are effective or efficient risk the hazards of stagnating or going out of business. Survival of an organization requires competent managers and workers coordinating their efforts towards the ultimate goal.

The issue of human resources development (HRD) has been gaining prominence and focus in management during the last two decades. Human resource being the most significant and active factor of production are considered to be the centre of all development processes of the economy (Beatty, 1997) while HRD has been known through the ages, its rediscovery as an essential demerit in development is necessitated by the deteriorating social conditions, increased competition and rapid technological advancements.

The theme organization of development of human resources has occurred during different periods at different places. Adam Smith, Karl Max and a host of classical and modern economists have emphasized the importance of human resources and focused on labour, dexterity and skill development.

There have been three stages of human resources development history (Carrel etal 1995) identify them as follows: the ancient, in which India was the leader, the second medieval stage, though recognized as the concept of a welfare state could not make it a reality. It gave birth or metamorphosed to what is called feudalism and perpetrated traditionalism. During the period, human development failed to cope with the faster development of material world. The modern and India has entered it with numerous problems due to foreign rule, over population poverty etc.

The emerging literature in the field of HRD indicates the multifaceted meaning of the term (Alvares:1997) HRD is a multi disciplinary concept. Different authors have defined it from different angles, economists described it upon the economic angle of capital assets, labour, skill and wages. The view human resources as accumulation of capital and their effective investment. A psychologist considers HRD from psychological dimensions of attitude, aptitude values, intelligence, perceptions, aspirations and motivations. Psychology provides an explanation for a variety of human behaviour and also several remedial functions through guidance, counseling etc. sociology perception of HRD moves around ingredients social relations like family, groupism, crowd, mob etc. An anthropologist looks at HRD keeping in view the history of humanity and focuses on several aspects of tradition, kinship, culture, myths and ceremonies.

The meaning of HRD have their relevance at both the micro and the macro levels in the contest of improving the quality of human life. It the organization level, that is considered to be improving the quality of workers so as to achieve the higher levels of productivity.

The quality and quantity of human resources are modified by such environmental factors such as education, training and development. With the help of acquire talents a human being is capable of producing new ideas, developing and improving capital goods and modifying the available physical and financial resources in order to achieve greater productivity, satisfaction and the goals of organization.



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