This project is a review of Leadership Challenges in Public Post-Primary Institutions; A Study of Public Post-Primary Institutions in Enugu State, Nigeria.

The Statement of Problem identified was Poor relationship between principals’ leadership style and teachers’ job performance, Poor access to aids and fund by the principal from the government, Poor work attitude of teachers, Poor moral values and academic performance of the students and Poor parental involvement.

To meet the general objective, the study will focus on the following specific objectives: To determine how poor relationship between principals’ leadership style affects teachers’ job performance in public institutions, how poor access to aids and fund by the principal from the government can lead to leadership challenges in public institutions, how poor work attitude of teachers can affect the leadership in public institutions etc.

The descriptive survey method was used and the research tool was questionnaire. 140 respondents answered the questionnaire. Data analysis using Chi-square formula and presentation was done by the use of tables.

The findings from the study showed mainly that there is significant poor relationships between principals’ leadership style and teachers’ job performance in public institutions. Finally, solutions and recommendations were proffered on how the work attitude of the teachers should be improved to help their productivity by encouraging job satisfaction. The write up is duly summarized.


Tite Page                                                                                                                     i

Certification Page                                                                                                       ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v


1.1: Background of the Study                                                                                      1

1.2: Statement of the Problem                                                                                      4

1.3: Objective of the Study                                                                                        5

1.4: Research Hypotheses                                                                                           6

1.5: Significance of Study                                                                                          6

1.6: Scope of the Study                                                                                              7

1.7: Limitations of the Study                                                                                      7


2.1: Concept of Public Institutions                                                                             9

2.2: Leadership in Public Institutions                                                                         11

2.3: Types of Leadership                                                                                            12

2.4: Public leadership challenges                                                                                20

2.5: Post-Primary Education in Nigeria                                                                      33

2.6: Leadership roles of Public Post-Primary Institution Principals                           50

2.7: Key challenges facing Public Post-Primary Institution Principals in Nigeria      60

Summary of literature review                                                                              77


3.0: Research Design                                                                                                  78

3.1: Area of Study                                                                                                      78

3.2: Source of Data                                                                                                     79

3.3: Population of the Study                                                                                       79

3.4: Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                      80

3.5: Data Collection Instrument                                                                                 81

3.6: Validation of Instrument                                                                                     82

3.7: Reliability Test                                                                                                     82

3.8: Method of Data Analysis                                                                                      83

3.9: Decision Rule                                                                                                       83



4.1: Presentation of Data                                                                                            84

4.2: Analyses of Data                                                                                                 85


5.1: Summary of Findings                                                                                          103

5.2: Recommendations                                                                                               107

5.3: Conclusion                                                                                                           107

REFERENCE                                                                                                           109










The issue of leadership is very central to management especially human resources developments and application. The art of leadership is as old as age itself, and covers all aspect of life may it be simple one unit or extended family, social and religious organization, business, small or large industrial firms, politics etc.

Research shows that there are many ways of approaching leadership. Leadership is the moral and intellectual ability to visualize and work for what is better for the company and its employees. The most vital thing the leader does is to create team spirit around him. A good leader therefore is one who is capable of persuading others to move enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals. Leadership can be seen in the context of voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organizational objectives. In this, “voluntary” is the operative word indicating that effective leadership does not connote the use of absolute power or authority alone. Indeed, successful leaders need to back up any authority rested in them with their personal attributes and social skills.

Leadership is the ability to guide, conduct, direct or influence the followership for the purpose of achieving common goals or task the leader thus possess the ability to influence others to achieve result. Leadership is concerned with the execution of those policies and decisions which help to direct the activities of an organization towards its specific goals.

Education in Nigeria is an instrument for affecting national development. Towards this end, the National Policy on Education set up certain aims and objectives which were to facilitate educational development in the country. In fostering these aims and objectives, the public post-primary school leaders have important roles to play. Among this roles include providing effective leadership in public post-primary schools, thereby enhancing better job performance among teachers. How effective the principal is in performing these roles have been a matter of concern to many educationists.

Education is the total efforts a community to raise its social, economic and political standard of life. Education is the process by which society passes its culture from one generation to another, while other holds the view that “education should aim”, not merely at creating and transferring technology, but also at developing people and resources.

The precarious state of Nigerian public post-primary schools calls for concern. It has been observed in the recent past that public post-primary institutions have derailed in the provision of qualitative education expected of them. The extent to which the school system is able to accomplish its stated objectives determines its level of effectiveness. Effectiveness in this context, transcends beyond students passing an examination. It encompasses students’ attainment in other domains of learning namely the affective and the psychomotor domains.

It has however been observed that the public post-primary institutions in Enugu North Local Government Area is not doing well in these domains of learning and this seem to make the society lose confidence in the system. For instance, the students’ academic performance which members of the society used mainly to measure the effectiveness of public post-primary institutions has witnessed unprecedented set back

Besides, it has again been observed that students of public post-primary institutions in Enugu North Local Government Area lack morals. High rate of indiscipline which manifests in form of absence from school, lateness to school, stealing, insubordination to school authority, smoking, cheating in examinations and among others are daily happenings in the schools. This raises a fundamental question as to the extent to which the schools are producing disciplined or morally upright school leavers into the larger society. The cause of the moral decadence among the youth is traceable to the non-teaching of ethics in the public post-primary institutions.

Personal experience has shown that very few public post-primary institutions leavers can communicate effectively or exhibit evidence of good and solid education background. It appears the students lack requisite technical skills to be able to function effectively in the society. These entire scenarios are pointers to the fact that the public post-primary institutions system is in a state of despair.

Several factors have been attributed to the perceived ineffectiveness of the public post-primary institutions among which are teacher factor, parental factor, economic factor, societal factor and principals’ leadership behaviour but this study was limited to the principals’ leadership behaviour as a potent factor for public post-primary institutions ineffectiveness. It has been observed that many public post-primary institutions principals in Enugu North Local Government Area do not involve their subordinates in their daily routine administrative duties and as a result do a lot of things themselves, thereby face challenges of all kinds.

Personal experiences have also shown that many principals of public post-primary institutions do not provide good leadership for the school system. Some do not motivate their teachers very well, some do not even relate very well with the teachers let alone students. It appears some member of teaching staff do not feel comfortable with the ways their principals behave in schools. This seems to be the reasons why most teachers put up non-challant attitude towards their job and consequently leads to ineffectiveness of the schools.

In order to build strong teacher commitment towards the realization of school goals, principals must provide strong, directive leadership in setting and developing school goals, creating a unity of purpose, facilitating communication and managing instruction. As principals in public post-primary institutions across Enugu North Local Government Area in Nigeria face many challenges from the contexts within which they have to govern and provide services. It is necessary to introduce innovative policies and processes in order to deal with these challenges. Dealing with the challenges through innovation requires leadership strategies and leadership style choices based upon an understanding and analysis of available leadership approaches.



In most public post-primary institutions (schools) in Enugu North local Government Area of Enugu State Nigeria, leaders (principals) face many challenges from the contexts within which they have to govern and provide services for efficient results.

It is for this reasons that this research work is proposed to address the following issues: