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MANAGING INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN FEDERAL TEACHING HOSPITALS IN THE SOUTH EAST NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

This study is on Managing Industrial Relations in Federal Teaching Hospitals. The objectives of study are to: examine the nature of industrial relations system in the Federal Teaching Hospital in the South East Nigeria; ascertain the nature of rules guiding industrial relations in Federal Teaching Hospitals in the South East Nigeria; ascertain whether industrial relations promote harmony in Federal Teaching Hospitals in the South East Nigeria; identify the major challenges of managing industrial relations in Federal Teaching Hospitals in the South East Nigeria. Data for this research were obtained from both primary and secondary sources. The study had a population size of 2160, out of which a sample size of 338 was realized using Taro Yamane’s statistical formula. Survey research design was adopted. Friedman Chi-square (X2) and Z-test were used to test the hypotheses. To ensure that the research instruments are valid, a conduct of a pre-test of every question in the questionnaire was carried out. For reliability of the research instruments, a test-re-test method was adopted using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient of reliability to calculate the result and the result gave reliability coefficient of 0.98. Findings indicate that; there is a smooth industrial relations system between management and workers in Federal Teaching Hospitals in the South East Nigeria; there are standard and positive rules guiding industrial relations in Federal Teaching Hospitals in the South East Nigeria; Industrial relations promote harmony in Federal Teaching Hospitals in the South East Nigeria; industrial disputes and strikes are the major challenges of managing industrial relations in Federal Teaching Hospitals in the South East Nigeria.  Based on the findings, the study recommends that there should be adequate salaries, allowances and incentives for workers in order to boost workers morale and enhance better industrial harmony. Management should create a good working environment that can motivate employees to be committed to their organizations. Management should involve their employees in decision making concerning industrial related matters that may result to conflict.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Approval page                                                                                                             ii

Certification                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    v

Abstract                                                                                                                      vi

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vii

List of Tables                                                                                                              x

List of Figures                                                                                                             xi

 

CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study                                                                                   1
  • Statement of the Problem                                                                                    3
  • Objectives of the Study                                                                                            4
  • Research Questions                                                                                            4
  • Research Hypotheses                                                                                            4
  • Significance of the Study                                                                                 5
  • Scope of the Study                                                                                            5
  • Limitations of the Study                                                                                            5
  • Definition of Terms                                                                                            6

References

 

CHAPTER TWO:  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 

  • Concept of Industrial Relations                                                                     8

2.2       Overview of Industrial Relations Systems Model                                          18

2.3      Concept of Labour Law                                                                                 23

2.4      The Nature of Relationship between the Employer and Employee                28

2.5       Regulation of Employment and Duties of Employers and Employees          32

2.6       Industrial Disputes/Challenges                                                                       40

References                                                                                                      63

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Research Design                                                                                                 66
  • Sources of Data                                                                                                  66
  • Population of the Study                                                                                      66
  • Sample Size Determination                                                                                 67

3.5   Description of Research Instrument                                                                   68

3.6   Data Analysis Techniques                                                                                   69

  •  Validity of the Research Instrument                                                                                              69

3.9   Reliability of the Research Instrument                                                               69

References                                                                                                           71

 

CHAPTER FOUR:

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS                         72                                             

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1    Summary of Major Findings                                                                  96

5.2    Conclusions                                                                                            96

5.3    Recommendations                                                                                 96

5.4    Contribution to Knowledge                                                                   97

5.5    Suggested Area for Future Research                                                     99

Bibliography

Appendix 1

Appendix 11

    

LIST OF TABLES

 

TABLES

3.1     Population Distribution                                                                                     67

3.2     Breakdown of sample size                                                                               68

3.3     Correlation coefficient of reliability                                                                69

4.1     Distribution and Return of the Questionnaire                                                72

4.2     Sex Distribution of Respondents                                                                     72

4.3     Age Distribution of Respondents                                                                    73

4.4     Marital Status                                                                                                  73

4.5     Education Qualification                                                                                   73

4.6      The nature of industrial relations system in Federal Teaching Hospitals

in the South East Nigeria 74

4.7      The nature of industrial relations system in Federal Teaching Hospitals

in the South East Nigeria                                                                                 74

4.8      The nature of industrial relations system in Federal Teaching Hospitals

in the South East Nigeria                                                                                  75

4.9     The nature of industrial relations system in Federal Teaching Hospitals

in the South East Nigeria       75

4.10   The nature of industrial relations system in Federal Teaching Hospitals

in the South East Nigeria                                                                                  76

4.11    Condensed outcome of the five questions administered for testing

Hypothesis one.                                                                                                                                  76

4.12   Aggregate response for the two hospitals                                                          77

4.13   Expected frequencies for Hypothesis one                                                         77

4.14    The nature of rules guiding industrial relations in Federal Teaching

Hospitals in the South East Nigeria.                                                                77

4.15    The nature of rules guiding industrial relations in Federal Teaching

Hospitals in the South East Nigeria.                                                                78

4.16    The nature of rules guiding industrial relations in Federal Teaching

Hospitals in the South East Nigeria.                                                                78

4.17    The nature of rules guiding industrial relations in Federal Teaching

Hospitals in the South East Nigeria.                                                                79

4.18    The nature of rules guiding industrial relations in Federal Teaching

Hospitals in the South East Nigeria.                                                                 79

4.19    Condensed outcome of the five questions administered for testing

Hypothesis two                                                                                                80

4.20    Aggregate response for the two hospitals                                                        80

4.21    Expected frequencies for Hypothesis two                                                        80

4.22    Industrial relations promote harmony in Federal Teaching Hospitals in

the South East Nigeria.                                                                                    81

4.23    Industrial relations promote harmony in Federal Teaching Hospitals in

the South East Nigeria.                                                                                     81

4.24    Industrial relations promote harmony in Federal Teaching Hospitals in

the South East Nigeria.                                                                                    82

4.25    Industrial relations promote harmony in Federal Teaching Hospitals in

the South East Nigeria.                                                                                    82

4.26   Industrial relations promote harmony in Federal Teaching Hospitals in

the South East Nigeria.                                                                                   83

 

4.27    Condensed outcome of the five questions administered for testing

Hypothesis three                                                                                               83

4.28    Aggregate response for the two hospitals                                                         84

4.29    Expected frequencies for Hypothesis three                                                      84

4.30    The major challenges of managing industrial relations in Federal

Teaching Hospitals in the South East Nigeria.                                                 84

4.31    The major challenges of managing industrial relations in Federal

Teaching Hospitals in the South East Nigeria.                                                85

4.32    The major challenges of managing industrial relations in Federal

Teaching Hospitals in the South East Nigeria.                                                85

4.33    The major challenges of managing industrial relations in Federal

Teaching Hospitals in the South East Nigeria.                                               86

4.34    The major challenges of managing industrial relations in Federal

Teaching Hospitals in the South East Nigeria.                                               86

4.35    Condensed outcome of the five questions administered for testing

Hypothesis four                                                                                               87

4.36    Aggregate response for the two hospitals                                                        87

4.37    Expected frequencies for Hypothesis four                                                      87

4.38    Descriptive Statistics                                                                                       88

4.39    Ranks                                                                                                               89

4.40    Test Statistics                                                                                                  89

4.41     Descriptive Statistics                                        90

4.42     Ranks                                                                                                              91

4.43    Test Statistics                                                                                                   91

4.44     One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test table                                               92

4.45     One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test  table               93

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1:       Machinery for Prevention and Settlement of

Industrial Relations                                                                 45

Figure 2.2:       Conflict                                                                                   59

Figure 5.1:       Models of Industrial Relations System                                  97

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Organization exists at the instance of the efforts of both the employer and the employees who are the prime movers of the operational activities of the entity. The two parties therefore, co-exist and interact in the course of the day-to-day operations of the organization. The above scenario in the workplace implies that there is defined relationship between the employer and the employees. Such two parties in the organization engage in formal relationship, which is purely for operational purposes. Therefore, the relationship between the employer and the employees is contractual in nature, which is that of master-servant relations. The implication is that industrial relations as a term embrace all aspects of the relationship between individual workers and groups (trade union and the management) in the course of organizational operations ( Akubuiro, 2003).

 

Fajana, (1995) states that industrial relations cover all aspects of employment relations between the employer and the employees in organizational operations. Hence, it relates to contractual relationship between the employer and the employees, regulation of conditions of service, collective bargaining, management of strikes, industrial democracy, employer-trade unions relations, and organization personnel policies on how to relate on mutual basis with individual workers and their trade unions in the course of organizational operations.

 

Generally industrial relations can be viewed as employee – employer relationship in the work place, the essence of which is to enhance employee satisfaction, and the furtherance of industrial peace and organizational growth (Swanepoel 2002). Other dimension to industrial relations is its tripartite nature as a relationship that exists between workers, employers and government.

 

According to Emiola, (2000), the position of the government is that of a regulator and protector of the workers’ rights. The legality of industrial relations derives from government’s recognition of employer and employees as partners in the production of goods and services. In the same vein, there is a range of government legislation regulating their (the employer and the employees) day-to-day activities. It implies that the position of government in industrial relations is one of acting as the watch-dog over the relationship between the employer and employees in the workplace. The essence of industrial relations revolves around the determination of general conditions of service, discipline, maintaining a stable work force, maintaining an ideal level of productivity, and providing welfare facilities for workers, among other issues in the workplace (Akubuiro, 2003).

 

The existence of unions is to allow workers to participate in the determination of policies under which they will consent to work. The principal interest of the employer on the other hand, is to maintain control of the organization, especially by monitoring allocation of organization’s resources. While the trade union demands represent extra cost to the employer, the employer in order to remain in business will introduce some measures to cut down costs by all means so as to make the maximum profit margin (Thiebart, 2003).

 

The result is that there is latent and often manifest of antagonism among the two parties, occasioned by the fact that their respective interests are at variance except in their bid to ensure continuity of production which fosters their dependence on each other for survival. There will be effective industrial relations in an organization if the following conditions exit:

  1. Effective Communication and mutual understanding between the employer (or management) and trade unions;
  2. Payment of wages and salaries and the implementation of all other conditions of service, which are fair and reasonable;

iii. High worker morale and the highest degree of workers identification with the economic objective of the enterprise;

The lowest possible level of industrial grievances and trade disputes.

Good industrial relations can make the enterprise move towards the welfare of the employees and the management of the concern. Cordial and peaceful industrial relations between the employees and employers are highly essential for enhancing productivity and the economic growth of the organization (Debendra, 2009).

According to Swanepoel (2002), industrial relations have a broad as well as a narrow outlook. Originally, industrial relations were broadly defined to include the relationships and interactions between employers and employees. From this perspective, industrial relations cover all aspects of the employment relationship, including human resource management, employee relations, and union-management (or labor) relations. Now its meaning has become more specific and restricted. Accordingly, industrial relations pertains to the study and practice of collective bargaining, trade unionism, and labor-management relations,

 

However, this study intend to achieve the relationships which arise at and out of the workplace to include the relationships between individual workers, the relationships between workers and their employer, the relationships employers and workers have with the organizations formed to promote their respective interests, and the relations between those organizations, at all levels. Industrial relations also includes the processes through which these relationships are expressed (such as, collective bargaining, workers’ participation in decision-making, and grievance and dispute settlement), and the management of conflict between employers, workers and trade unions, when it arises ( Adeogun, 1997).

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

 

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