1.1     Background of the Study

The relevance of training and motivation of manpower in industries is enormous and should be assessed with the view to proffering possible suggestions of improving organizational productivity.

According to Lipsey (1989:20), economic growth is a reflection of growth of firms, industries and the local economies.  Therefore, the ultimate aim of any economic system is to satisfy the material needs and wants of its members by providing them with a supply of goods and services to consume.  Modern growth theory begins from the obvious starting point that to produce goods, one must employ labour on the one hand, and capital goods on the other.

Ugbam (2001:1) defined management as the effective and efficient allocation of the limited resources of an organization to achieve the predetermined objectives of such organization.  An organization can remain relevant and meaningfully competitive in the market only if it has quality manpower, which is able to formulate policies and programmes for the firm with market opportunities and organizational resources.  Many organizations have gone out of existence (i.e. to extinction) not because of lack of manpower but rather, as a result of the lack of systematic manpower training, development and motivational practices.

Viteless (1953:8) observed that globally, people are increasingly having less commitment to their jobs.  Workers no longer make full use of their capacities in maintaining and raising production standards and this has led to production decline, which has been attributed more to motivational than to technological or economic factors.  Low productivity has been an issue for concern since the colonial era and in the present economic dispensation, the need for an efficient, dedicated and productive workforce cannot be over-emphasized.  This has prompted the government, academics and other groups to organize seminars, lectures, and workshops on productivity.

Ejimofor, (1984:9) in emphasizing the importance of motivation and training stated that no matter how good or efficient an organization is, nothing happens until the people who constitute same are well trained and motivated to perform.  All other things being equal, then if an employee is not given continuous training and is poorly motivated, his performance will be low.

Despite the importance of manpower training and motivational practices to the success of many organizations, it does appear that some organizations remain to treat this issue with the seriousness it calls for.

As Seidmann (1990:41) puts it “Not only must manpower be available, but it must have acquired skills necessary to operate complex modern industrial and agricultural machinery and techniques”.  Most modern industries do not think in terms of motivating its workers; this has really affected the productive level of the organization.

Therefore, the general trend in present day Nigeria though, unfortunately, is that most employees render services that do not justify their pay i.e. exhibiting dysfunctional tendencies such as absenteeism, lateness, tardiness, turnover and organizational sabotage.  Some even go to the extent of forging sick leave papers.  If the employee should be at his place of work and do productive work, if well trained and motivated, then this will go along way in improving the productivity level of the organization, if not, it will lead to low productivity.

It is against this background that the researcher deemed it necessary to have an in-depth search on the relevance of training and motivation of manpower in industries with the view to proffering possible suggestions of improving organizational productivity.



This study is to identify the factors that retard good training and motivational practices, which result in low productivity in organizations.

It will also identify the bad effects of lack of training and motivational practices of human resources in organizations so as to establish its relationship with organizational productivity.



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